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Use of primary cultures of Kenyon cells from bumblebee brains to assess pesticide side effects

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Abstract
Bumblebees are important pollinators in natural and agricultural ecosystems. The latter results in the frequent exposure of bumblebees to pesticides. We report here on a new bioassay that uses primary cultures of neurons derived from adult bumblebee workers to evaluate possible side-effects of the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid. Mushroom bodies (MBs) from the brains of bumblebee workers were dissected and dissociated to produce cultures of Kenyon cells (KCs). Cultured KCs typically extend branched, dendrite-like processes called neurites, with substantial growth evident 24-48 h after culture initiation. Exposure of cultured KCs obtained from newly eclosed adult workers to 2.5 parts per billion (ppb) imidacloprid, an environmentally relevant concentration of pesticide, did not have a detectable effect on neurite outgrowth. By contrast, in cultures prepared from newly eclosed adult bumblebees, inhibitory effects of imidacloprid were evident when the medium contained 25 ppb imidacloprid, and no growth was observed at 2,500 ppb. The KCs of older workers (13-day-old nurses and foragers) appeared to be more sensitive to imidacloprid than newly eclosed adults, as strong effects on KCs obtained from older nurses and foragers were also evident at 2.5 ppb imidacloprid. In conclusion, primary cultures using KCs of bumblebee worker brains offer a tool to assess sublethal effects of neurotoxic pesticides in vitro. Such studies also have the potential to contribute to the understanding of mechanisms of plasticity in the adult bumblebee brain.
Keywords
EXPERIENCE, DROSOPHILA, IONIC CURRENTS, BEE, NEUROANATOMICAL PLASTICITY, LEARNING PERFORMANCES, MUSHROOM BODY, ANTENNAL LOBE NEURONS, HONEYBEES APIS-MELLIFERA, NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE-RECEPTOR, neurite, Kenyon cells, neonicotinoids, imidacloprid

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Chicago
Wilson, Daniel E, Rodrigo A Velarde, Susan E Fahrbach, Veerle Mommaerts, and Guy Smagghe. 2013. “Use of Primary Cultures of Kenyon Cells from Bumblebee Brains to Assess Pesticide Side Effects.” Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 84 (1): 43–56.
APA
Wilson, D. E., Velarde, R. A., Fahrbach, S. E., Mommaerts, V., & Smagghe, G. (2013). Use of primary cultures of Kenyon cells from bumblebee brains to assess pesticide side effects. ARCHIVES OF INSECT BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY, 84(1), 43–56.
Vancouver
1.
Wilson DE, Velarde RA, Fahrbach SE, Mommaerts V, Smagghe G. Use of primary cultures of Kenyon cells from bumblebee brains to assess pesticide side effects. ARCHIVES OF INSECT BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 2013;84(1):43–56.
MLA
Wilson, Daniel E, Rodrigo A Velarde, Susan E Fahrbach, et al. “Use of Primary Cultures of Kenyon Cells from Bumblebee Brains to Assess Pesticide Side Effects.” ARCHIVES OF INSECT BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY 84.1 (2013): 43–56. Print.
@article{4115910,
  abstract     = {Bumblebees are important pollinators in natural and agricultural ecosystems. The latter results in the frequent exposure of bumblebees to pesticides. We report here on a new bioassay that uses primary cultures of neurons derived from adult bumblebee workers to evaluate possible side-effects of the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid. Mushroom bodies (MBs) from the brains of bumblebee workers were dissected and dissociated to produce cultures of Kenyon cells (KCs). Cultured KCs typically extend branched, dendrite-like processes called neurites, with substantial growth evident 24-48 h after culture initiation. Exposure of cultured KCs obtained from newly eclosed adult workers to 2.5 parts per billion (ppb) imidacloprid, an environmentally relevant concentration of pesticide, did not have a detectable effect on neurite outgrowth. By contrast, in cultures prepared from newly eclosed adult bumblebees, inhibitory effects of imidacloprid were evident when the medium contained 25 ppb imidacloprid, and no growth was observed at 2,500 ppb. The KCs of older workers (13-day-old nurses and foragers) appeared to be more sensitive to imidacloprid than newly eclosed adults, as strong effects on KCs obtained from older nurses and foragers were also evident at 2.5 ppb imidacloprid. In conclusion, primary cultures using KCs of bumblebee worker brains offer a tool to assess sublethal effects of neurotoxic pesticides in vitro. Such studies also have the potential to contribute to the understanding of mechanisms of plasticity in the adult bumblebee brain.},
  author       = {Wilson, Daniel E and Velarde, Rodrigo A and Fahrbach, Susan E and Mommaerts, Veerle and Smagghe, Guy},
  issn         = {0739-4462},
  journal      = {ARCHIVES OF INSECT BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {EXPERIENCE,DROSOPHILA,IONIC CURRENTS,BEE,NEUROANATOMICAL PLASTICITY,LEARNING PERFORMANCES,MUSHROOM BODY,ANTENNAL LOBE NEURONS,HONEYBEES APIS-MELLIFERA,NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE-RECEPTOR,neurite,Kenyon cells,neonicotinoids,imidacloprid},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {43--56},
  title        = {Use of primary cultures of Kenyon cells from bumblebee brains to assess pesticide side effects},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arch.21112},
  volume       = {84},
  year         = {2013},
}

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