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Systematic reflection: implications for learning from failures and successes

Shmuel Ellis, Bernd Carette (UGent) , Frederik Anseel (UGent) and Filip Lievens (UGent)
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Abstract
Drawing on a growing stream of empirical findings that runs across different psychological domains, we demonstrate that systematic reflection stands out as a prominent tool for learning from experience. For decades, failed experiences have been considered the most powerful learning sources. Despite the theoretical and practical relevance, scant research has investigated whether people can also learn from their successes. We show that through systematic reflection people can learn from both their successes and failures. Studies have further shown that the effectiveness of systematic reflection depends on situational (e.g., reflection focus) and person-based factors (e.g., conscientiousness). Given today’s unrelenting pace and the abundance of activities in which people are involved, future research may want to investigate how to effectively integrate systematic reflection within the busy daily environment of the learner.
Keywords
AFTER-EVENT REVIEWS, MODERATING ROLE, COUNTERFACTUAL THINKING, FAILED EXPERIENCE, SELF-EFFICACY, PERFORMANCE, MOTIVATION, BELIEFS, LESSONS, TEAMS, reflection, learning, successes, failures, performance

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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Ellis, Shmuel et al. “Systematic Reflection: Implications for Learning from Failures and Successes.” CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 23.1 (2014): 67–72. Print.
APA
Ellis, Shmuel, Carette, B., Anseel, F., & Lievens, F. (2014). Systematic reflection: implications for learning from failures and successes. CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 23(1), 67–72.
Chicago author-date
Ellis, Shmuel, Bernd Carette, Frederik Anseel, and Filip Lievens. 2014. “Systematic Reflection: Implications for Learning from Failures and Successes.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 23 (1): 67–72.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Ellis, Shmuel, Bernd Carette, Frederik Anseel, and Filip Lievens. 2014. “Systematic Reflection: Implications for Learning from Failures and Successes.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 23 (1): 67–72.
Vancouver
1.
Ellis S, Carette B, Anseel F, Lievens F. Systematic reflection: implications for learning from failures and successes. CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 2014;23(1):67–72.
IEEE
[1]
S. Ellis, B. Carette, F. Anseel, and F. Lievens, “Systematic reflection: implications for learning from failures and successes,” CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 67–72, 2014.
@article{4115773,
  abstract     = {Drawing on a growing stream of empirical findings that runs across different psychological domains, we demonstrate that systematic reflection stands out as a prominent tool for learning from experience. For decades, failed experiences have been considered the most powerful learning sources. Despite the theoretical and practical relevance, scant research has investigated whether people can also learn from their successes. We show that through systematic reflection people can learn from both their successes and failures. Studies have further shown that the effectiveness of systematic reflection depends on situational (e.g., reflection focus) and person-based factors (e.g., conscientiousness). Given today’s unrelenting pace and the abundance of activities in which people are involved, future research may want to investigate how to effectively integrate systematic reflection within the busy daily environment of the learner.},
  author       = {Ellis, Shmuel and Carette, Bernd and Anseel, Frederik and Lievens, Filip},
  issn         = {0963-7214},
  journal      = {CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
  keywords     = {AFTER-EVENT REVIEWS,MODERATING ROLE,COUNTERFACTUAL THINKING,FAILED EXPERIENCE,SELF-EFFICACY,PERFORMANCE,MOTIVATION,BELIEFS,LESSONS,TEAMS,reflection,learning,successes,failures,performance},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {67--72},
  title        = {Systematic reflection: implications for learning from failures and successes},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0963721413504106},
  volume       = {23},
  year         = {2014},
}

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