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Reciprocity and depressive symptoms in Belgian workers: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis

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Abstract
Objective: This study examines the multidimensional association between reciprocity at work and depressive symptoms. Methods: Data from the Belgian BELSTRESS survey (32 companies; N = 24,402) were analyzed. Multilevel statistical procedures were used to account for company-level associations while controlling for individual-level associations. Results: Different dimensions of individual reciprocity were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. On the company level, only vertical emotional reciprocity was negatively associated (beta = -4.660; SE = 1.117) independently from individual reciprocity (beta = -0.557; SE = 0.042). Complex interactions were found such that workplace reciprocity (1) may not uniformly benefit individuals and (2) related differently to depressive symptoms, depending on occupational group. Conclusions: This study extends the existing literature with evidence on the multidimensional, contextual, and cross-level interaction associations of reciprocity as a key aspect of social capital on depressive symptoms.
Keywords
FINNISH PUBLIC-SECTOR, SELF-RATED HEALTH, JOB STRESS, SMOKING, MODEL, US, EPIDEMIOLOGY, ASSOCIATION, COMMUNITIES, INEQUALITY

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MLA
De Clercq, Bart, Els Clays, Heidi Janssens, et al. “Reciprocity and Depressive Symptoms in Belgian Workers: a Cross-sectional Multilevel Analysis.” JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE 55.7 (2013): 824–831. Print.
APA
De Clercq, Bart, Clays, E., Janssens, H., De Bacquer, D., Casini, A., Kittel, F., & Braeckman, L. (2013). Reciprocity and depressive symptoms in Belgian workers: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis. JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, 55(7), 824–831.
Chicago author-date
De Clercq, Bart, Els Clays, Heidi Janssens, Dirk De Bacquer, Annalisa Casini, France Kittel, and Lutgart Braeckman. 2013. “Reciprocity and Depressive Symptoms in Belgian Workers: a Cross-sectional Multilevel Analysis.” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 55 (7): 824–831.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Clercq, Bart, Els Clays, Heidi Janssens, Dirk De Bacquer, Annalisa Casini, France Kittel, and Lutgart Braeckman. 2013. “Reciprocity and Depressive Symptoms in Belgian Workers: a Cross-sectional Multilevel Analysis.” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 55 (7): 824–831.
Vancouver
1.
De Clercq B, Clays E, Janssens H, De Bacquer D, Casini A, Kittel F, et al. Reciprocity and depressive symptoms in Belgian workers: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis. JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE. 2013;55(7):824–31.
IEEE
[1]
B. De Clercq et al., “Reciprocity and depressive symptoms in Belgian workers: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis,” JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 824–831, 2013.
@article{4109256,
  abstract     = {Objective: This study examines the multidimensional association between reciprocity at work and depressive symptoms.
Methods: Data from the Belgian BELSTRESS survey (32 companies; N = 24,402) were analyzed. Multilevel statistical procedures were used to account for company-level associations while controlling for individual-level associations.
Results: Different dimensions of individual reciprocity were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. On the company level, only vertical emotional reciprocity was negatively associated (beta = -4.660; SE = 1.117) independently from individual reciprocity (beta = -0.557; SE = 0.042). Complex interactions were found such that workplace reciprocity (1) may not uniformly benefit individuals and (2) related differently to depressive symptoms, depending on occupational group.
Conclusions: This study extends the existing literature with evidence on the multidimensional, contextual, and cross-level interaction associations of reciprocity as a key aspect of social capital on depressive symptoms.},
  author       = {De Clercq, Bart and Clays, Els and Janssens, Heidi and De Bacquer, Dirk and Casini, Annalisa and Kittel, France and Braeckman, Lutgart},
  issn         = {1076-2752},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE},
  keywords     = {FINNISH PUBLIC-SECTOR,SELF-RATED HEALTH,JOB STRESS,SMOKING,MODEL,US,EPIDEMIOLOGY,ASSOCIATION,COMMUNITIES,INEQUALITY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {824--831},
  title        = {Reciprocity and depressive symptoms in Belgian workers: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e31828dc8cd},
  volume       = {55},
  year         = {2013},
}

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