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Effect of TAG composition on the solid fat content profile, microstructure, and hardness of model fat blends with identical saturated fatty acid content

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Abstract
TAGs play an important role in determining the functional properties of fat-based food products such as margarines, chocolate, and spreads. Nowadays, special attention is given to the role of the TAG structure and how it affects functional properties such as mouth feel, texture, and plasticity. Key to this research is the need to develop more healthy fats with a reduced level of trans and saturated fatty acids (SFAs), while maintaining the desired properties. In this study, fat blends with identical levels of SFA (50%) but differing in the ratio asymmetric/symmetric blends were evaluated by pulsed NMR and texturometry as a function of storage time and storage temperature. A higher trisaturated TAG content gave rise to a higher solid fat content (SFC) at higher temperature and a lower SFC at lower temperature for both palmitic and stearic based blends. On the other hand, the effect of symmetry on the SFC-profile of the blends was only clear for the stearic based blends. At lower temperatures, the SFC of symmetric TAG based blend (blend SM) was markedly lower than that of asymmetric TAG based blend (blend iS). However, from 30 degrees C onwards, the SFC of blend SM was clearly higher than that of blend iS. The microscopic analyses revealed a denser crystal network for a higher degree of trisaturated TAG and for symmetric stearic based blends. Moreover, some blends showed a clear evolution of the microstructure during storage with smaller crystals transforming into larger ones. Finally, texture analyses demonstrated the importance of the crystallization and storage temperature on the hardness of the blends.
Keywords
Trisaturated, MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES, SFC, Symmetry, Microstructure, Hardness, CRYSTAL NETWORKS, PHASE-BEHAVIOR, CRYSTALLIZATION, SHORTENINGS, MIXTURES, MODULUS, OIL

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MLA
De Graef, Veerle, Jeroen Vereecken, Kevin W Smith, et al. “Effect of TAG Composition on the Solid Fat Content Profile, Microstructure, and Hardness of Model Fat Blends with Identical Saturated Fatty Acid Content.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 114.5 (2012): 592–601. Print.
APA
De Graef, V., Vereecken, J., Smith, K. W., Bhaggan, K., & Dewettinck, K. (2012). Effect of TAG composition on the solid fat content profile, microstructure, and hardness of model fat blends with identical saturated fatty acid content. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 114(5), 592–601.
Chicago author-date
De Graef, Veerle, Jeroen Vereecken, Kevin W Smith, Krish Bhaggan, and Koen Dewettinck. 2012. “Effect of TAG Composition on the Solid Fat Content Profile, Microstructure, and Hardness of Model Fat Blends with Identical Saturated Fatty Acid Content.” European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 114 (5): 592–601.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Graef, Veerle, Jeroen Vereecken, Kevin W Smith, Krish Bhaggan, and Koen Dewettinck. 2012. “Effect of TAG Composition on the Solid Fat Content Profile, Microstructure, and Hardness of Model Fat Blends with Identical Saturated Fatty Acid Content.” European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 114 (5): 592–601.
Vancouver
1.
De Graef V, Vereecken J, Smith KW, Bhaggan K, Dewettinck K. Effect of TAG composition on the solid fat content profile, microstructure, and hardness of model fat blends with identical saturated fatty acid content. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 2012;114(5):592–601.
IEEE
[1]
V. De Graef, J. Vereecken, K. W. Smith, K. Bhaggan, and K. Dewettinck, “Effect of TAG composition on the solid fat content profile, microstructure, and hardness of model fat blends with identical saturated fatty acid content,” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol. 114, no. 5, pp. 592–601, 2012.
@article{4081731,
  abstract     = {TAGs play an important role in determining the functional properties of fat-based food products such as margarines, chocolate, and spreads. Nowadays, special attention is given to the role of the TAG structure and how it affects functional properties such as mouth feel, texture, and plasticity. Key to this research is the need to develop more healthy fats with a reduced level of trans and saturated fatty acids (SFAs), while maintaining the desired properties. In this study, fat blends with identical levels of SFA (50%) but differing in the ratio asymmetric/symmetric blends were evaluated by pulsed NMR and texturometry as a function of storage time and storage temperature. A higher trisaturated TAG content gave rise to a higher solid fat content (SFC) at higher temperature and a lower SFC at lower temperature for both palmitic and stearic based blends. On the other hand, the effect of symmetry on the SFC-profile of the blends was only clear for the stearic based blends. At lower temperatures, the SFC of symmetric TAG based blend (blend SM) was markedly lower than that of asymmetric TAG based blend (blend iS). However, from 30 degrees C onwards, the SFC of blend SM was clearly higher than that of blend iS. The microscopic analyses revealed a denser crystal network for a higher degree of trisaturated TAG and for symmetric stearic based blends. Moreover, some blends showed a clear evolution of the microstructure during storage with smaller crystals transforming into larger ones. Finally, texture analyses demonstrated the importance of the crystallization and storage temperature on the hardness of the blends.},
  author       = {De Graef, Veerle and Vereecken, Jeroen and Smith, Kevin W and Bhaggan, Krish and Dewettinck, Koen},
  issn         = {1438-7697},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY},
  keywords     = {Trisaturated,MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES,SFC,Symmetry,Microstructure,Hardness,CRYSTAL NETWORKS,PHASE-BEHAVIOR,CRYSTALLIZATION,SHORTENINGS,MIXTURES,MODULUS,OIL},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {592--601},
  title        = {Effect of TAG composition on the solid fat content profile, microstructure, and hardness of model fat blends with identical saturated fatty acid content},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201100215},
  volume       = {114},
  year         = {2012},
}

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