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The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis

F Martin, A Aerts, D Ahrén, A Brun, EGJ Danchin, F Duchaussoy, J Gibon, A Kohler, E Lindquist and V Pereda, et al. (2008) NATURE. 452(7183). p.88-92
abstract
Mycorrhizal symbioses - the union of roots and soil fungi - are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants(1,2). Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae(1). Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor ( Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65- megabase genome assembly contains 20,000 predicted protein- encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector- type small secreted proteins ( SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae- specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate- active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non- plant cell wall polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and nitrogen cycles that are fundamental to sustainable plant productivity.
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author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
PROTEINS, MEDICAGO-TRUNCATULA, BIOLOGY
journal title
NATURE
Nature
volume
452
issue
7183
pages
88 - 92
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000253671900052
JCR category
MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES
JCR impact factor
31.434 (2008)
JCR rank
1/41 (2008)
JCR quartile
1 (2008)
ISSN
0028-0836
DOI
10.1038/nature06556
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
398205
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-398205
date created
2008-05-08 11:37:00
date last changed
2013-10-15 16:52:19
@article{398205,
  abstract     = {Mycorrhizal symbioses - the union of roots and soil fungi - are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants(1,2). Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae(1). Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor ( Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65- megabase genome assembly contains 20,000 predicted protein- encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector- type small secreted proteins ( SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae- specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate- active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non- plant cell wall polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and nitrogen cycles that are fundamental to sustainable plant productivity.},
  author       = {Martin, F and Aerts, A and Ahr{\'e}n, D and Brun, A and Danchin, EGJ and Duchaussoy, F and Gibon, J and Kohler, A and Lindquist, E and Pereda, V and Salamov, A and Shapiro, HJ and Wuyts, Jan and Blaudez, D and Bu{\'e}e, M and Brokstein, P and Canb{\"a}ck, B and Cohen, D and Courty, PE and Coutinho, PM and Delaruelle, C and Detter, JC and Deveau, A and DiFazio, S and Duplessis, S and Fraissinet-Tachet, L and Lucic, E and Frey-Klett, P and Fourrey, C and Feussner, I and Gay, G and Grimwood, J and Hoegger, PJ and Jain, P and Kilaru, S and Labb{\'e}, J and Lin, Yao-Cheng and Legu{\'e}, V and Le Tacon, F and Marmeisse, R and Melayah, D and Montanini, B and Muratet, M and Nehls, U and Niculita-Hirzel, H and Oudot-Le Secq, MP and Peter, M and Quesneville, H and Rajashekar, B and Reich, M and Rouhier, N and Schmutz, J and Yin, T and Chalot, M and Henrissat, B and K{\"u}es, U and Lucas, S and Van de Peer, Yves and Podila, GK and Polle, A and Pukkila, PJ and Richardson, PM and Rouz{\'e}, Pierre and Sanders, IR and Stajich, JE and Tunlid, A and Tuskan, G and Grigoriev, IV},
  issn         = {0028-0836},
  journal      = {NATURE},
  keyword      = {PROTEINS,MEDICAGO-TRUNCATULA,BIOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7183},
  pages        = {88--92},
  title        = {The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature06556},
  volume       = {452},
  year         = {2008},
}

Chicago
Martin, F, A Aerts, D Ahrén, A Brun, EGJ Danchin, F Duchaussoy, J Gibon, et al. 2008. “The Genome of Laccaria Bicolor Provides Insights into Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.” Nature 452 (7183): 88–92.
APA
Martin, F., Aerts, A., Ahrén, D., Brun, A., Danchin, E., Duchaussoy, F., Gibon, J., et al. (2008). The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis. NATURE, 452(7183), 88–92.
Vancouver
1.
Martin F, Aerts A, Ahrén D, Brun A, Danchin E, Duchaussoy F, et al. The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis. NATURE. 2008;452(7183):88–92.
MLA
Martin, F, A Aerts, D Ahrén, et al. “The Genome of Laccaria Bicolor Provides Insights into Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.” NATURE 452.7183 (2008): 88–92. Print.