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Cardiovascular effects of enoximone in isoflurane anaesthetized ponies

Stijn Schauvliege (UGent) , Annelies Van den Eede (UGent) , Luc Duchateau (UGent) and Frank Gasthuys (UGent)
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Abstract
Objective: Enoximone is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor frequently used to improve cardiac output (CC) in man. As the use of enoximone has not been reported in horses, the effects of this inodilator were examined in isoflurane anaesthetized ponies. Study design: Prospective, randomised, experimental study. Animals: Six healthy ponies, weighing 286 (212367) 52 kg, aged 5.0 +/- 1.6 years (4-6.5). Methods: After sedation with romifidine [80 mu g kg(-1) intravenously (IV)], general anaesthesia was induced with midazolam (0.06 mg kg(-1) IV) and ketamine (2.2 mg kg(-1) IV) and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen (Et Iso 1.7%). The ponies were ventilated to maintain eucapnia (PaCO2 4.66-6.00 kPa). Each pony was anaesthetized twice with an interval of 3 weeks; receiving enoximone 0.5 mg kg(-1) IV (E) or saline (S) 90 minutes postinduction. Heart rate (HR), arterial (AP) and right atrial pressure (RAP) were measured before treatment, every 5 minutes between TO (treatment) and T30 and then every 10 minutes until T120. Cardiac output measurements (lithium dilution technique) and blood gas analysis (arterial and central venous samples) were performed before T0 and at T5, T10, T20, T40, T60, T80, T100 and T120. Stroke volume (SV), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), venous admixture (Qs/Qt) and oxygen delivery DO2 were calculated. Results: Enoximone induced significant increases in FIR, CO, SV, Qs/Qt and DO2 and a significant decrease in RAP. No significant differences were detected for AP, SVR and blood gases. No cardiac arrhythmias or other side effects were observed. Conclusions and clinical relevance: The present results suggest that in isoflurane anaesthetized ponies, enoximone has beneficial effects on CO and SV without producing significant changes in blood pressure. Despite an increase in Qs/Qt, hO, to the tissues was improved.
Keywords
OUTPUT, DOBUTAMINE, CARDIAC-SURGERY, MYOCARDIAL-CONTRACTILITY, HALOTHANE ANESTHESIA, INOTROPIC AGENTS, LITHIUM DILUTION, BLOOD-FLOW, cardiovascular depression, cardiac output, HORSES, enoximone, horse, isoflurane, CONGESTIVE-HEART-FAILURE

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Citation

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MLA
Schauvliege, Stijn, Annelies Van den Eede, Luc Duchateau, et al. “Cardiovascular Effects of Enoximone in Isoflurane Anaesthetized Ponies.” VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA 34.6 (2007): 416–430. Print.
APA
Schauvliege, S., Van den Eede, A., Duchateau, L., & Gasthuys, F. (2007). Cardiovascular effects of enoximone in isoflurane anaesthetized ponies. VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 34(6), 416–430.
Chicago author-date
Schauvliege, Stijn, Annelies Van den Eede, Luc Duchateau, and Frank Gasthuys. 2007. “Cardiovascular Effects of Enoximone in Isoflurane Anaesthetized Ponies.” Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 34 (6): 416–430.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Schauvliege, Stijn, Annelies Van den Eede, Luc Duchateau, and Frank Gasthuys. 2007. “Cardiovascular Effects of Enoximone in Isoflurane Anaesthetized Ponies.” Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 34 (6): 416–430.
Vancouver
1.
Schauvliege S, Van den Eede A, Duchateau L, Gasthuys F. Cardiovascular effects of enoximone in isoflurane anaesthetized ponies. VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA. 2007;34(6):416–30.
IEEE
[1]
S. Schauvliege, A. Van den Eede, L. Duchateau, and F. Gasthuys, “Cardiovascular effects of enoximone in isoflurane anaesthetized ponies,” VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 416–430, 2007.
@article{396801,
  abstract     = {Objective: Enoximone is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor frequently used to improve cardiac output (CC) in man. As the use of enoximone has not been reported in horses, the effects of this inodilator were examined in isoflurane anaesthetized ponies. 
Study design: Prospective, randomised, experimental study. 
Animals: Six healthy ponies, weighing 286 (212367) 52 kg, aged 5.0 +/- 1.6 years (4-6.5). 
Methods: After sedation with romifidine [80 mu g kg(-1) intravenously (IV)], general anaesthesia was induced with midazolam (0.06 mg kg(-1) IV) and ketamine (2.2 mg kg(-1) IV) and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen (Et Iso 1.7%). The ponies were ventilated to maintain eucapnia (PaCO2 4.66-6.00 kPa). Each pony was anaesthetized twice with an interval of 3 weeks; receiving enoximone 0.5 mg kg(-1) IV (E) or saline (S) 90 minutes postinduction. Heart rate (HR), arterial (AP) and right atrial pressure (RAP) were measured before treatment, every 5 minutes between TO (treatment) and T30 and then every 10 minutes until T120. Cardiac output measurements (lithium dilution technique) and blood gas analysis (arterial and central venous samples) were performed before T0 and at T5, T10, T20, T40, T60, T80, T100 and T120. Stroke volume (SV), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), venous admixture (Qs/Qt) and oxygen delivery DO2 were calculated. 
Results: Enoximone induced significant increases in FIR, CO, SV, Qs/Qt and DO2 and a significant decrease in RAP. No significant differences were detected for AP, SVR and blood gases. No cardiac arrhythmias or other side effects were observed. 
Conclusions and clinical relevance: The present results suggest that in isoflurane anaesthetized ponies, enoximone has beneficial effects on CO and SV without producing significant changes in blood pressure. Despite an increase in Qs/Qt, hO, to the tissues was improved.},
  author       = {Schauvliege, Stijn and Van den Eede, Annelies and Duchateau, Luc and Gasthuys, Frank},
  issn         = {1467-2987},
  journal      = {VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA},
  keywords     = {OUTPUT,DOBUTAMINE,CARDIAC-SURGERY,MYOCARDIAL-CONTRACTILITY,HALOTHANE ANESTHESIA,INOTROPIC AGENTS,LITHIUM DILUTION,BLOOD-FLOW,cardiovascular depression,cardiac output,HORSES,enoximone,horse,isoflurane,CONGESTIVE-HEART-FAILURE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {416--430},
  title        = {Cardiovascular effects of enoximone in isoflurane anaesthetized ponies},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2995.2007.00343.x},
  volume       = {34},
  year         = {2007},
}

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