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Red xylem and higher lignin extractability by down-regulating a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in poplar

(1996) PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 112(4). p.1479-1490
Author
Organization
Abstract
Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of the lignin precursors, the monolignols. We have down-regulated CAD in transgenic poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) by both antisense and co-suppression strategies. Several antisense and sense CAD transgenic poplars had an approximately 70% reduced CAD activity that was associated with a red coloration of the xylem tissue. Neither the lignin amount nor the lignin monomeric composition (syringyl/guaiacyl) were significantly modified. However, phloroglucinol-HCl staining was different in the down-regulated CAD plants, suggesting changes in the number of aldehyde units in the lignin. Furthermore, the reactivity of the cell wall toward alkali treatment was altered: a lower amount of lignin was found in the insoluble, saponified residue and more lignin could be precipitated from the soluble alkali fraction. Moreover, large amounts of phenolic compounds, vanillin and especially syringaldehyde, were detected in the soluble alkali fraction of the CAD down-regulated poplars. Alkaline pulping experiments on 3-month-old trees showed a reduction of the kappa number without affecting the degree of cellulose degradation. These results indicate that reducing the CAD activity in trees might be a valuable strategy to optimize certain processes of the wood industry, especially those of the pulp and paper industry.
Keywords
TRANSGENIC TOBACCO, ACID O-METHYLTRANSFERASE, ANTISENSE GENE, LOBLOLLY-PINE, HIGHER-PLANTS, BIOSYNTHESIS, PURIFICATION, MAIZE, WOOD, POPULUS-X-EURAMERICANA

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MLA
Baucher, Marie, Brigitte Chabbert, Gilles Pilate, et al. “Red Xylem and Higher Lignin Extractability by Down-regulating a Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Poplar.” PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 112.4 (1996): 1479–1490. Print.
APA
Baucher, M., Chabbert, B., Pilate, G., Van Doorsselaere, J., Tollier, M. T., Petit-Conil, M., Cornu, D., et al. (1996). Red xylem and higher lignin extractability by down-regulating a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in poplar. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 112(4), 1479–1490.
Chicago author-date
Baucher, Marie, Brigitte Chabbert, Gilles Pilate, Jan Van Doorsselaere, Marie Thérèse Tollier, Michel Petit-Conil, Daniel Cornu, et al. 1996. “Red Xylem and Higher Lignin Extractability by Down-regulating a Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Poplar.” Plant Physiology 112 (4): 1479–1490.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Baucher, Marie, Brigitte Chabbert, Gilles Pilate, Jan Van Doorsselaere, Marie Thérèse Tollier, Michel Petit-Conil, Daniel Cornu, Bernard Monties, Marc Van Montagu, Dirk Inzé, Lise Jouanin, and Wout Boerjan. 1996. “Red Xylem and Higher Lignin Extractability by Down-regulating a Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Poplar.” Plant Physiology 112 (4): 1479–1490.
Vancouver
1.
Baucher M, Chabbert B, Pilate G, Van Doorsselaere J, Tollier MT, Petit-Conil M, et al. Red xylem and higher lignin extractability by down-regulating a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in poplar. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 1996;112(4):1479–90.
IEEE
[1]
M. Baucher et al., “Red xylem and higher lignin extractability by down-regulating a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in poplar,” PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 1479–1490, 1996.
@article{346156,
  abstract     = {Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of the lignin precursors, the monolignols. We have down-regulated CAD in transgenic poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) by both antisense and co-suppression strategies. Several antisense and sense CAD transgenic poplars had an approximately 70% reduced CAD activity that was associated with a red coloration of the xylem tissue. Neither the lignin amount nor the lignin monomeric composition (syringyl/guaiacyl) were significantly modified. However, phloroglucinol-HCl staining was different in the down-regulated CAD plants, suggesting changes in the number of aldehyde units in the lignin. Furthermore, the reactivity of the cell wall toward alkali treatment was altered: a lower amount of lignin was found in the insoluble, saponified residue and more lignin could be precipitated from the soluble alkali fraction. Moreover, large amounts of phenolic compounds, vanillin and especially syringaldehyde, were detected in the soluble alkali fraction of the CAD down-regulated poplars. Alkaline pulping experiments on 3-month-old trees showed a reduction of the kappa number without affecting the degree of cellulose degradation. These results indicate that reducing the CAD activity in trees might be a valuable strategy to optimize certain processes of the wood industry, especially those of the pulp and paper industry.},
  author       = {Baucher, Marie and Chabbert, Brigitte and Pilate, Gilles and Van Doorsselaere, Jan and Tollier, Marie Thérèse and Petit-Conil, Michel and Cornu, Daniel and Monties, Bernard and Van Montagu, Marc and Inzé, Dirk and Jouanin, Lise and Boerjan, Wout},
  issn         = {0032-0889},
  journal      = {PLANT PHYSIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {TRANSGENIC TOBACCO,ACID O-METHYLTRANSFERASE,ANTISENSE GENE,LOBLOLLY-PINE,HIGHER-PLANTS,BIOSYNTHESIS,PURIFICATION,MAIZE,WOOD,POPULUS-X-EURAMERICANA},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {1479--1490},
  title        = {Red xylem and higher lignin extractability by down-regulating a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in poplar},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.112.4.1479},
  volume       = {112},
  year         = {1996},
}

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