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Assessment of the tilting properties of the human mitral valve during three main phases of the heart cycle: an echocardiographic study

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Abstract
Rationale and Objectives: In experimental models of the left heart, the mitral valve (MV) is commonly implanted perpendicular to a central axis of the apex/MV. To adapt this to a more correct anatomical model, as well as for further studies of the left ventricle, we created a database of implantation angles of the MV and annulus during three main phases of the heart cycle, based on standard cardiac ultrasound measurements. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients were studied with the standard cardiac ultrasound equipment. From the apical echo window, an anteroposterior (AP) plane and a perpendicular commisure-commisure (CC) plane were generated during three critical moments in the heart cycle: systole (S); diastole early filling (E); and diastole late filling (A). In both planes, the angles between the annular plane and each mitral leaflet, as well as the angle between a theoretical longitudinal axis through the apex and center of the MV orifice and the mitral annulus plane, were measured with a custom-made application of Matlab R14. Results: We observed an inclination of the angle mitral annulus/central left ventricle axis, with its lowest point in the direction of the aortic valve (AP plane) of 85 degrees +/- 7 degrees in systole (S), 88 degrees +/- 8 degrees in early diastole (E), and 88 degrees +/- 7 degrees in late diastole (A). In the CC plane, we observed an almost horizontal implantation of 91 degrees +/- 5 degrees in systole (S), 91 degrees +/- 8 degrees in early diastole (E), and 91 degrees +/- 7 degrees in late diastole (A).
Keywords
tilting mitral annulus, left ventricle model, M-MODE DOPPLER

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Chicago
Vanhercke, Daniel, Tom Claessens, Hans Vanderkerckhove, Ilse Van Tricht, Patrick Segers, and Pascal Verdonck. 2006. “Assessment of the Tilting Properties of the Human Mitral Valve During Three Main Phases of the Heart Cycle: An Echocardiographic Study.” Echocardiography-a Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound and Allied Techniques 23 (4): 265–270.
APA
Vanhercke, D., Claessens, T., Vanderkerckhove, H., Van Tricht, I., Segers, P., & Verdonck, P. (2006). Assessment of the tilting properties of the human mitral valve during three main phases of the heart cycle: an echocardiographic study. ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY-A JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ULTRASOUND AND ALLIED TECHNIQUES, 23(4), 265–270.
Vancouver
1.
Vanhercke D, Claessens T, Vanderkerckhove H, Van Tricht I, Segers P, Verdonck P. Assessment of the tilting properties of the human mitral valve during three main phases of the heart cycle: an echocardiographic study. ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY-A JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ULTRASOUND AND ALLIED TECHNIQUES. 2006;23(4):265–70.
MLA
Vanhercke, Daniel, Tom Claessens, Hans Vanderkerckhove, et al. “Assessment of the Tilting Properties of the Human Mitral Valve During Three Main Phases of the Heart Cycle: An Echocardiographic Study.” ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY-A JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ULTRASOUND AND ALLIED TECHNIQUES 23.4 (2006): 265–270. Print.
@article{341582,
  abstract     = {Rationale and Objectives: In experimental models of the left heart, the mitral valve (MV) is commonly implanted perpendicular to a central axis of the apex/MV. To adapt this to a more correct anatomical model, as well as for further studies of the left ventricle, we created a database of implantation angles of the MV and annulus during three main phases of the heart cycle, based on standard cardiac ultrasound measurements.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients were studied with the standard cardiac ultrasound equipment. From the apical echo window, an anteroposterior (AP) plane and a perpendicular commisure-commisure (CC) plane were generated during three critical moments in the heart cycle: systole (S); diastole early filling (E); and diastole late filling (A). In both planes, the angles between the annular plane and each mitral leaflet, as well as the angle between a theoretical longitudinal axis through the apex and center of the MV orifice and the mitral annulus plane, were measured with a custom-made application of Matlab R14.
Results: We observed an inclination of the angle mitral annulus/central left ventricle axis, with its lowest point in the direction of the aortic valve (AP plane) of 85 degrees +/- 7 degrees in systole (S), 88 degrees +/- 8 degrees in early diastole (E), and 88 degrees +/- 7 degrees in late diastole (A). In the CC plane, we observed an almost horizontal implantation of 91 degrees +/- 5 degrees in systole (S), 91 degrees +/- 8 degrees in early diastole (E), and 91 degrees +/- 7 degrees in late diastole (A).},
  author       = {Vanhercke, Daniel and Claessens, Tom and Vanderkerckhove, Hans and Van Tricht, Ilse and Segers, Patrick and Verdonck, Pascal},
  issn         = {0742-2822},
  journal      = {ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY-A JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ULTRASOUND AND ALLIED TECHNIQUES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {265--270},
  title        = {Assessment of the tilting properties of the human mitral valve during three main phases of the heart cycle: an echocardiographic study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-8175.2006.00209.x},
  volume       = {23},
  year         = {2006},
}

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