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Prototyping micro-optical components with integrated out-of-plane coupling structures using deep lithography with protons: art. no. 618504

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Abstract
We present Deep Lithography with Protons (DLP) as a rapid prototyping technology to fabricate waveguide-based micro-optical components with monolithically integrated 45 degrees micro-mirrors acting as out-of-plane couplers, splitting the optical signal in 3 separated paths. For the first time, two different proton beam sizes are used during one irradiation and a 20 mu m collimating aperture is chosen to accurately define the out-of-plane coupling structures. We fully optimized the DLP process for this 20 mu m proton beam and we measured the surface roughness (R-q=27.5nm) and the flatness (R-t=3.17 mu m) of the realized components. Finally, we experimentally measured the optical transmission efficiency of the micro-optical splitter component. The results are in excellent agreement with non-sequential ray-tracing simulations performed for the design. Above that, we present a pluggable out-of-plane coupler incorporating a single micro-mirror for the 90 degrees coupling of light to or from polymer multimode waveguides integrated on a printed circuit board (PCB). This millimeter-sized mass-reproducible component can then be readily inserted into laser ablated cavities. Non-sequential ray-tracing simulations are performed to predict the optical performance of the component, showing coupling efficiencies up to 78%. These results are then experimentally verified using piezo-motorized positioning equipment with submicron accuracy in a multimode fiber-to-fiber coupling scheme, showing coupling efficiencies up to 56%. The fabricated coupling components are suitable for low-cost mass production since our micro-optical prototyping technology is compatible with standard replication techniques, such as hot embossing and injection molding, has been shown before.
Keywords
INTERCONNECTIONS, WAVE-GUIDE, MIRRORS, Deep Lithography with Protons (DLP), micro-optics, optical interconnect, out-of-plane coupling, passive optical splitters, polymer multimode waveguides

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Chicago
Van Erps, Jurgen, Lawrence Bogaert, Bart Volckaerts, Christof Debaes, and Hugo Thienpont. 2006. “Prototyping Micro-optical Components with Integrated Out-of-plane Coupling Structures Using Deep Lithography with Protons: Art. No. 618504.” In Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE), ed. H Thienpont, MR Taghizadeh, P Daele, and J Mohr, 6185:18504–18504. Bellingham, WA, USA: Spie.
APA
Van Erps, Jurgen, Bogaert, L., Volckaerts, B., Debaes, C., & Thienpont, H. (2006). Prototyping micro-optical components with integrated out-of-plane coupling structures using deep lithography with protons: art. no. 618504. In H Thienpont, M. Taghizadeh, P. Daele, & J. Mohr (Eds.), Proceedings of the society of photo-optical instrumentation engineers (SPIE) (Vol. 6185, pp. 18504–18504). Presented at the Conference on Micro-Optics, VCSELs, and Photonic Interconnects II, Bellingham, WA, USA: Spie.
Vancouver
1.
Van Erps J, Bogaert L, Volckaerts B, Debaes C, Thienpont H. Prototyping micro-optical components with integrated out-of-plane coupling structures using deep lithography with protons: art. no. 618504. In: Thienpont H, Taghizadeh M, Daele P, Mohr J, editors. Proceedings of the society of photo-optical instrumentation engineers (SPIE). Bellingham, WA, USA: Spie; 2006. p. 18504–18504.
MLA
Van Erps, Jurgen, Lawrence Bogaert, Bart Volckaerts, et al. “Prototyping Micro-optical Components with Integrated Out-of-plane Coupling Structures Using Deep Lithography with Protons: Art. No. 618504.” Proceedings of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Ed. H Thienpont et al. Vol. 6185. Bellingham, WA, USA: Spie, 2006. 18504–18504. Print.
@inproceedings{331619,
  abstract     = {We present Deep Lithography with Protons (DLP) as a rapid prototyping technology to fabricate waveguide-based micro-optical components with monolithically integrated 45 degrees micro-mirrors acting as out-of-plane couplers, splitting the optical signal in 3 separated paths. For the first time, two different proton beam sizes are used during one irradiation and a 20 mu m collimating aperture is chosen to accurately define the out-of-plane coupling structures. We fully optimized the DLP process for this 20 mu m proton beam and we measured the surface roughness (R-q=27.5nm) and the flatness (R-t=3.17 mu m) of the realized components. Finally, we experimentally measured the optical transmission efficiency of the micro-optical splitter component. The results are in excellent agreement with non-sequential ray-tracing simulations performed for the design. Above that, we present a pluggable out-of-plane coupler incorporating a single micro-mirror for the 90 degrees coupling of light to or from polymer multimode waveguides integrated on a printed circuit board (PCB). This millimeter-sized mass-reproducible component can then be readily inserted into laser ablated cavities. Non-sequential ray-tracing simulations are performed to predict the optical performance of the component, showing coupling efficiencies up to 78\%. These results are then experimentally verified using piezo-motorized positioning equipment with submicron accuracy in a multimode fiber-to-fiber coupling scheme, showing coupling efficiencies up to 56\%. The fabricated coupling components are suitable for low-cost mass production since our micro-optical prototyping technology is compatible with standard replication techniques, such as hot embossing and injection molding, has been shown before.},
  articleno    = {618504},
  author       = {Van Erps, Jurgen and Bogaert, Lawrence and Volckaerts, Bart and Debaes, Christof and Thienpont, Hugo},
  booktitle    = {Proceedings of the society of photo-optical instrumentation engineers (SPIE)},
  editor       = {Thienpont, H and Taghizadeh, MR and Daele, P and Mohr, J},
  isbn         = {0819462411},
  issn         = {0277-786X},
  keyword      = {INTERCONNECTIONS,WAVE-GUIDE,MIRRORS,Deep Lithography with Protons (DLP),micro-optics,optical interconnect,out-of-plane coupling,passive optical splitters,polymer multimode waveguides},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Strasbourg, France},
  pages        = {618504:18504--618504:18504},
  publisher    = {Spie},
  title        = {Prototyping micro-optical components with integrated out-of-plane coupling structures using deep lithography with protons: art. no. 618504},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.663372},
  volume       = {6185},
  year         = {2006},
}

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