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Enhancement of porcine circovirus 2 replication in porcine cell lines by IFN-γ before and after treatment and by IFN-α after treatment

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Abstract
Stimulation of the porcine immune system causes increased replication of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) in vivo. In the present study, we investigated whether various cytokines (interleukin-1 [IL-1], IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha], interferon-alpha [IFN-alpha], and IFN-gamma) are able to influence PCV2 infection in vitro. No changes were observed in IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, or IL-10-treated cells. However, it was demonstrated that IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma influenced PCV2 infection in porcine kidney cells (PK-15) and porcine monocytic cells (3D4/31). IFN-gamma added to the culture medium before, during, or after inoculation increased the number of PCV2 antigen-positive cells, respectively, by 418%, 171%, and 691% in PK-15 cells and by 706%, 114%, and 423% in 3D4/31 cells. IFN-alpha pretreatment decreased the number of infected PK-15 cells. When it was added after inoculation, IFN-alpha enhanced PCV2 infection by 529% in PK-15 cells and by 308% in 3D4/31 cells. The effect of both IFNs on PCV2 infection was dose dependent and could be blocked with IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma neutralizing antibodies. Leukocyte-derived porcine IFN-gamma induced a similar effect on PCV2 infection. Treatment of PK-15 cultures with IFN-gamma caused a 20 times higher production of progeny virus. Confocal microscopy studies showed that the enhancing effect of IFN-gamma on PCV2 infection was achieved by increased internalization of PCV2 virionlike particles (VLPs). Binding of the VLPs to the cell or expression kinetics of PCV2 proteins in infected cells were not altered by IFN-gamma treatment. To our knowledge, this study reports the first enhancement of a viral infection by treatment with type I or type II IFNs.
Keywords
HEPATITIS-C, MULTISYSTEMIC WASTING SYNDROME, IMMUNE-RESPONSE, BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES, EXPERIMENTAL INOCULATION, EXPERIMENTAL REPRODUCTION, INTERFERON-GAMMA, EXPERIMENTAL-INFECTION, RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS, COLOSTRUM-DEPRIVED PIGLETS

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Citation

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MLA
Meerts, Peter, Gerald Misinzo, and Hans Nauwynck. “Enhancement of Porcine Circovirus 2 Replication in Porcine Cell Lines by IFN-γ Before and After Treatment and by IFN-α After Treatment.” JOURNAL OF INTERFERON AND CYTOKINE RESEARCH 25.11 (2005): 684–693. Print.
APA
Meerts, Peter, Misinzo, G., & Nauwynck, H. (2005). Enhancement of porcine circovirus 2 replication in porcine cell lines by IFN-γ before and after treatment and by IFN-α after treatment. JOURNAL OF INTERFERON AND CYTOKINE RESEARCH, 25(11), 684–693.
Chicago author-date
Meerts, Peter, Gerald Misinzo, and Hans Nauwynck. 2005. “Enhancement of Porcine Circovirus 2 Replication in Porcine Cell Lines by IFN-γ Before and After Treatment and by IFN-α After Treatment.” Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research 25 (11): 684–693.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Meerts, Peter, Gerald Misinzo, and Hans Nauwynck. 2005. “Enhancement of Porcine Circovirus 2 Replication in Porcine Cell Lines by IFN-γ Before and After Treatment and by IFN-α After Treatment.” Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research 25 (11): 684–693.
Vancouver
1.
Meerts P, Misinzo G, Nauwynck H. Enhancement of porcine circovirus 2 replication in porcine cell lines by IFN-γ before and after treatment and by IFN-α after treatment. JOURNAL OF INTERFERON AND CYTOKINE RESEARCH. 2005;25(11):684–93.
IEEE
[1]
P. Meerts, G. Misinzo, and H. Nauwynck, “Enhancement of porcine circovirus 2 replication in porcine cell lines by IFN-γ before and after treatment and by IFN-α after treatment,” JOURNAL OF INTERFERON AND CYTOKINE RESEARCH, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 684–693, 2005.
@article{326621,
  abstract     = {Stimulation of the porcine immune system causes increased replication of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) in vivo. In the present study, we investigated whether various cytokines (interleukin-1 [IL-1], IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha], interferon-alpha [IFN-alpha], and IFN-gamma) are able to influence PCV2 infection in vitro. No changes were observed in IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, or IL-10-treated cells. However, it was demonstrated that IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma influenced PCV2 infection in porcine kidney cells (PK-15) and porcine monocytic cells (3D4/31). IFN-gamma added to the culture medium before, during, or after inoculation increased the number of PCV2 antigen-positive cells, respectively, by 418%, 171%, and 691% in PK-15 cells and by 706%, 114%, and 423% in 3D4/31 cells. IFN-alpha pretreatment decreased the number of infected PK-15 cells. When it was added after inoculation, IFN-alpha enhanced PCV2 infection by 529% in PK-15 cells and by 308% in 3D4/31 cells. The effect of both IFNs on PCV2 infection was dose dependent and could be blocked with IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma neutralizing antibodies. Leukocyte-derived porcine IFN-gamma induced a similar effect on PCV2 infection. Treatment of PK-15 cultures with IFN-gamma caused a 20 times higher production of progeny virus. Confocal microscopy studies showed that the enhancing effect of IFN-gamma on PCV2 infection was achieved by increased internalization of PCV2 virionlike particles (VLPs). Binding of the VLPs to the cell or expression kinetics of PCV2 proteins in infected cells were not altered by IFN-gamma treatment. To our knowledge, this study reports the first enhancement of a viral infection by treatment with type I or type II IFNs.},
  author       = {Meerts, Peter and Misinzo, Gerald and Nauwynck, Hans},
  issn         = {1079-9907},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF INTERFERON AND CYTOKINE RESEARCH},
  keywords     = {HEPATITIS-C,MULTISYSTEMIC WASTING SYNDROME,IMMUNE-RESPONSE,BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES,EXPERIMENTAL INOCULATION,EXPERIMENTAL REPRODUCTION,INTERFERON-GAMMA,EXPERIMENTAL-INFECTION,RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS,COLOSTRUM-DEPRIVED PIGLETS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {684--693},
  title        = {Enhancement of porcine circovirus 2 replication in porcine cell lines by IFN-γ before and after treatment and by IFN-α after treatment},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jir.2005.25.684},
  volume       = {25},
  year         = {2005},
}

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