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Exposure to the proton scavenger glycine under alkaline conditions induces Escherichia coli viability loss

Donna Vanhauteghem (UGent) , Geert Janssens (UGent) , Angelo Lauwaerts, Stanislas Sys (UGent) , Filip Boyen (UGent) , Eric Cox (UGent) and Evelyne Meyer (UGent)
(2013) PLOS ONE. 8(3).
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Abstract
Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli) membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine), under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometry was applied to assess various physiological parameters such as membrane permeability, esterase activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential. ATP and inorganic phosphate concentrations were also determined. Membrane damage was confirmed through the measurement of nucleic acid leakage. Results further showed no loss of esterase or respiratory activity, while an instant and significant decrease in the ATP concentration occurred upon exposure to either glycine, sarcosine or DMG, but not betaine. There was a clear membrane hyperpolarization as well as a significant increase in cellular inorganic phosphate concentration. Based on these results, we suggest that the inability to sustain an adequate level of ATP combined with a decrease in membrane functionality leads to the loss of bacterial viability when exposed to the proton scavengers glycine, sarcosine and DMG at alkaline pH.
Keywords
bacterial viability, flow cytometry, alkaline stress, proton scavenging, betaine, dimethylglycine, sarcosine, glycine

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Chicago
Vanhauteghem, Donna, Geert Janssens, Angelo Lauwaerts, Stanislas Sys, Filip Boyen, Eric Cox, and Evelyne Meyer. 2013. “Exposure to the Proton Scavenger Glycine Under Alkaline Conditions Induces Escherichia Coli Viability Loss.” Plos One 8 (3).
APA
Vanhauteghem, D., Janssens, G., Lauwaerts, A., Sys, S., Boyen, F., Cox, E., & Meyer, E. (2013). Exposure to the proton scavenger glycine under alkaline conditions induces Escherichia coli viability loss. PLOS ONE, 8(3).
Vancouver
1.
Vanhauteghem D, Janssens G, Lauwaerts A, Sys S, Boyen F, Cox E, et al. Exposure to the proton scavenger glycine under alkaline conditions induces Escherichia coli viability loss. PLOS ONE. 2013;8(3).
MLA
Vanhauteghem, Donna, Geert Janssens, Angelo Lauwaerts, et al. “Exposure to the Proton Scavenger Glycine Under Alkaline Conditions Induces Escherichia Coli Viability Loss.” PLOS ONE 8.3 (2013): n. pag. Print.
@article{3263311,
  abstract     = {Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli) membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine), under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometry was applied to assess various physiological parameters such as membrane permeability, esterase activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential. ATP and inorganic phosphate concentrations were also determined. Membrane damage was confirmed through the measurement of nucleic acid leakage. Results further showed no loss of esterase or respiratory activity, while an instant and significant decrease in the ATP concentration occurred upon exposure to either glycine, sarcosine or DMG, but not betaine. There was a clear membrane hyperpolarization as well as a significant increase in cellular inorganic phosphate concentration. Based on these results, we suggest that the inability to sustain an adequate level of ATP combined with a decrease in membrane functionality leads to the loss of bacterial viability when exposed to the proton scavengers glycine, sarcosine and DMG at alkaline pH.},
  articleno    = {e60328},
  author       = {Vanhauteghem, Donna and Janssens, Geert and Lauwaerts, Angelo and Sys, Stanislas and Boyen, Filip and Cox, Eric and Meyer, Evelyne},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  keyword      = {bacterial viability,flow cytometry,alkaline stress,proton scavenging,betaine,dimethylglycine,sarcosine,glycine},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {11},
  title        = {Exposure to the proton scavenger glycine under alkaline conditions induces Escherichia coli viability loss},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060328},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2013},
}

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