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Identifying subtypes among children with developmental coordination disorder and mathematical learning disabilities, using model-based clustering

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Abstract
A relationship between motor and mathematical skills has been shown by previous research. However, the question of whether subtypes can be differentiated within developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and/or mathematical learning disability (MLD) remains unresolved. In a sample of children with and without DCD and/or MLD, a data-driven model-based clustering was used to identify subgroups of individuals with relatively homogeneous profiles on measures associated with motor and mathematical skills. One subgroup of children with motor problems was found based on motor variables. Based on mathematical variables, two clinical clusters were found: a subtype with number fact retrieval problems and a subtype with procedural calculation problems. Clustering with motor and mathematical skills revealed two clinical clusters: a cluster with number fact retrieval as well as procedural calculation problems and below average motor and visual-motor integration skills. A second cluster of children had only procedural calculation and visual-motor problems. Our results raise questions about the usefulness of placing children who have below average mathematical skills into a single diagnostic category. Furthermore, we inform ongoing debates about the overlap between DCD and MLD, as below average motor skills were found in both MLD subgroups, although a different motor profile is linked to a different mathematical profile.
Keywords
WORKING-MEMORY, BASIC NUMERICAL CAPACITIES, K-MEANS, ACHIEVEMENT, DYSCALCULIA, COMORBIDITY, DIFFICULTIES, STUDENTS, DEFICITS, SKILLS, mathematical learning disability, developmental coordination disorder, subtypes

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Chicago
Pieters, Stefanie, Herbert Roeyers, Yves Rosseel, Hilde Van Waelvelde, and Annemie Desoete. 2015. “Identifying Subtypes Among Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Mathematical Learning Disabilities, Using Model-based Clustering.” Journal of Learning Disabilities 48 (1): 83–95.
APA
Pieters, Stefanie, Roeyers, H., Rosseel, Y., Van Waelvelde, H., & Desoete, A. (2015). Identifying subtypes among children with developmental coordination disorder and mathematical learning disabilities, using model-based clustering. JOURNAL OF LEARNING DISABILITIES, 48(1), 83–95.
Vancouver
1.
Pieters S, Roeyers H, Rosseel Y, Van Waelvelde H, Desoete A. Identifying subtypes among children with developmental coordination disorder and mathematical learning disabilities, using model-based clustering. JOURNAL OF LEARNING DISABILITIES. 2015;48(1):83–95.
MLA
Pieters, Stefanie, Herbert Roeyers, Yves Rosseel, et al. “Identifying Subtypes Among Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Mathematical Learning Disabilities, Using Model-based Clustering.” JOURNAL OF LEARNING DISABILITIES 48.1 (2015): 83–95. Print.
@article{3257507,
  abstract     = {A relationship between motor and mathematical skills has been shown by previous research. However, the question of whether subtypes can be differentiated within developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and/or mathematical learning disability (MLD) remains unresolved. In a sample of children with and without DCD and/or MLD, a data-driven model-based clustering was used to identify subgroups of individuals with relatively homogeneous profiles on measures associated with motor and mathematical skills. One subgroup of children with motor problems was found based on motor variables. Based on mathematical variables, two clinical clusters were found: a subtype with number fact retrieval problems and a subtype with procedural calculation problems. Clustering with motor and mathematical skills revealed two clinical clusters: a cluster with number fact retrieval as well as procedural calculation problems and below average motor and visual-motor integration skills. A second cluster of children had only procedural calculation and visual-motor problems. Our results raise questions about the usefulness of placing children who have below average mathematical skills into a single diagnostic category. Furthermore, we inform ongoing debates about the overlap between DCD and MLD, as below average motor skills were found in both MLD subgroups, although a different motor profile is linked to a different mathematical profile.},
  author       = {Pieters, Stefanie and Roeyers, Herbert and Rosseel, Yves and Van Waelvelde, Hilde and Desoete, Annemie},
  issn         = {0022-2194},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF LEARNING DISABILITIES},
  keyword      = {WORKING-MEMORY,BASIC NUMERICAL CAPACITIES,K-MEANS,ACHIEVEMENT,DYSCALCULIA,COMORBIDITY,DIFFICULTIES,STUDENTS,DEFICITS,SKILLS,mathematical learning disability,developmental coordination disorder,subtypes},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {83--95},
  title        = {Identifying subtypes among children with developmental coordination disorder and mathematical learning disabilities, using model-based clustering},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022219413491288},
  volume       = {48},
  year         = {2015},
}

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