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Fate of heavy metals in an urban natural wetland: the Nyabugogo swamp (Rwanda)

(2011) WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION. 214(1-4). p.321-333
Author
Organization
Abstract
The Nyabugogo natural wetland (Kigali City, Rwanda) receives all kinds of untreated wastewaters, including those from industrial areas. This study monitored heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in all environmental compartments of the swamp: water and sediment, the dominant plant species Cyperus papyrus, and fish (Clarias sp. and Oreochromis sp.) and Oligochaetes. Cr, Cu, and Zn concentrations in the water were generally below the WHO (2008) drinking water standards, whereas Cd and Pb were consistently above these limits. Except Cd, all metal concentrations were below the threshold levels for irrigation. The highest metal accumulation occurred in the sediment with up to 4.2 mg/kg for Cd, 68 mg/kg for Cu, 58.3 mg/kg for Pb, and 188.0 mg/kg for Zn, followed by accumulation in the roots of C. papyrus with up to 4.2 mg/kg for Cd, 45.8 mg/kg for Cr, 29.7 mg/kg for Cu, and 56.1 mg/kg for Pb. Except Cu and Zn, other heavy metal (Cd, Cr, and Pb) concentrations were high in Clarias sp., Oreochromis sp., and Oligochaetes. Therefore, there is a human health concern for people using water and products from the swamp.
Keywords
Industrial pollution, Bioaccumulation, Cyperus papyrus, TRANSPORT, ENVIRONMENT, NETHERLANDS, WATER, BIOACCUMULATION, CONTAMINATION, ACCUMULATION, CANAL SEDIMENTS, LAKE VICTORIA, PLANTS, Nyabugogo wetland, Heavy metal

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Citation

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MLA
Sekomo, Christian B, Egide Nkuranga, Diederik Rousseau, et al. “Fate of Heavy Metals in an Urban Natural Wetland: The Nyabugogo Swamp (Rwanda).” WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION 214.1-4 (2011): 321–333. Print.
APA
Sekomo, Christian B, Nkuranga, E., Rousseau, D., & Lens, P. N. (2011). Fate of heavy metals in an urban natural wetland: the Nyabugogo swamp (Rwanda). WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION, 214(1-4), 321–333.
Chicago author-date
Sekomo, Christian B, Egide Nkuranga, Diederik Rousseau, and Piet NL Lens. 2011. “Fate of Heavy Metals in an Urban Natural Wetland: The Nyabugogo Swamp (Rwanda).” Water Air and Soil Pollution 214 (1-4): 321–333.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Sekomo, Christian B, Egide Nkuranga, Diederik Rousseau, and Piet NL Lens. 2011. “Fate of Heavy Metals in an Urban Natural Wetland: The Nyabugogo Swamp (Rwanda).” Water Air and Soil Pollution 214 (1-4): 321–333.
Vancouver
1.
Sekomo CB, Nkuranga E, Rousseau D, Lens PN. Fate of heavy metals in an urban natural wetland: the Nyabugogo swamp (Rwanda). WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION. 2011;214(1-4):321–33.
IEEE
[1]
C. B. Sekomo, E. Nkuranga, D. Rousseau, and P. N. Lens, “Fate of heavy metals in an urban natural wetland: the Nyabugogo swamp (Rwanda),” WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION, vol. 214, no. 1–4, pp. 321–333, 2011.
@article{3239887,
  abstract     = {The Nyabugogo natural wetland (Kigali City, Rwanda) receives all kinds of untreated wastewaters, including those from industrial areas. This study monitored heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in all environmental compartments of the swamp: water and sediment, the dominant plant species Cyperus papyrus, and fish (Clarias sp. and Oreochromis sp.) and Oligochaetes. Cr, Cu, and Zn concentrations in the water were generally below the WHO (2008) drinking water standards, whereas Cd and Pb were consistently above these limits. Except Cd, all metal concentrations were below the threshold levels for irrigation. The highest metal accumulation occurred in the sediment with up to 4.2 mg/kg for Cd, 68 mg/kg for Cu, 58.3 mg/kg for Pb, and 188.0 mg/kg for Zn, followed by accumulation in the roots of C. papyrus with up to 4.2 mg/kg for Cd, 45.8 mg/kg for Cr, 29.7 mg/kg for Cu, and 56.1 mg/kg for Pb. Except Cu and Zn, other heavy metal (Cd, Cr, and Pb) concentrations were high in Clarias sp., Oreochromis sp., and Oligochaetes. Therefore, there is a human health concern for people using water and products from the swamp.},
  author       = {Sekomo, Christian B and Nkuranga, Egide and Rousseau, Diederik and Lens, Piet NL},
  issn         = {0049-6979},
  journal      = {WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION},
  keywords     = {Industrial pollution,Bioaccumulation,Cyperus papyrus,TRANSPORT,ENVIRONMENT,NETHERLANDS,WATER,BIOACCUMULATION,CONTAMINATION,ACCUMULATION,CANAL SEDIMENTS,LAKE VICTORIA,PLANTS,Nyabugogo wetland,Heavy metal},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1-4},
  pages        = {321--333},
  title        = {Fate of heavy metals in an urban natural wetland: the Nyabugogo swamp (Rwanda)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11270-010-0426-9},
  volume       = {214},
  year         = {2011},
}

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