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Soy consumption during menopause

Selin Bolca (UGent), Marc Bracke (UGent) and Herman Depypere (UGent)
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Abstract
In developed countries, the life expectancy of women is currently extending more than 30 years beyond the age of menopause. The menopausal transition is often associated with complaints. The conflicting results on the effectivity of phytoestrogens to alleviate menopausal symptoms. This discrepancy in treatment effect may be due to the large interindividual variation in isoflavone bioavailability in general and equol production in particular. Equol, a microbial metabolite of daidzein, has been hypothesized as a clue to the effectiveness of soy and its isoflavones, but only about 30-50% of the population harbor an intestinal microbial ecosystem supporting the conversion of daidzein into equol. There is much concern on breast cancer, since this incidence of this disease increases with age. There is indication that soy phytoestrogens may decrease this breast cancer incidence. In order to evaluate the estrogenic potential of these exposure levels, we studied the isoflavone-derived E2α- and E2β-equivalents (i.e. 17β-estradiol (E2)-equivalents towards ERα and ERβ, respectively) in human breast tissue. Total isoflavones showed a breast adipose/glandular tissue distribution of 40/60 and their derived E2β-equivalents exceeded on average 21 ± 4 and 40 ± 10 times the endogenous E2 concentrations in corresponding adipose and glandular biopsies, respectively, whereas the E2α/E2 ratios were 0.4 ± 0.1 and 0.8 ± 0.2 in adipose and glandular breast tissue, respectively. These calculations suggest that, at least in this case, soy consumption could elicit partial ERβ agonistic effects in human breast tissue. We are currently characterizing the differential activation of estrogen-responsive genes between dietary isoflavones, the chemopreventive selective ER modulators tamoxifen and raloxifene and exogenous estrogens in a controlled dietary intervention trial that integrates data on the exposure to estrogenically active compounds, expression of isoflavone and estrogen target genes, and epigenetic events. During the menopause, there is a close relation between the drop in serum estrogen and negative metabolic changes such as the increase in bone resorption and negative change in the serum lipid profile. Randomized controlled trials measuring bone turnover markers in menopausal women revealed that soy isoflavone supplements significantly but moderately decrease the bone resorption marker urinary deoxypyridinoline without significant effects on the bone formation markers serum bone alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin.
Keywords
phytoestrogens, soy, menopause, lipid profile, isoflavones, Bone resorption, estrogens

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Chicago
Bolca, Selin, Marc Bracke, and Herman Depypere. 2012. “Soy Consumption During Menopause.” Facts, Views & Vision in Obgyn 4 (1): 30–37.
APA
Bolca, S., Bracke, M., & Depypere, H. (2012). Soy consumption during menopause. FACTS, VIEWS & VISION IN OBGYN, 4(1), 30–37.
Vancouver
1.
Bolca S, Bracke M, Depypere H. Soy consumption during menopause. FACTS, VIEWS & VISION IN OBGYN. 2012;4(1):30–7.
MLA
Bolca, Selin, Marc Bracke, and Herman Depypere. “Soy Consumption During Menopause.” FACTS, VIEWS & VISION IN OBGYN 4.1 (2012): 30–37. Print.
@article{3238617,
  abstract     = {In developed countries, the life expectancy of women is currently extending more than 30 years beyond the age of menopause. The menopausal transition is often associated with complaints. The conflicting results on the effectivity of phytoestrogens to alleviate menopausal symptoms. This discrepancy in treatment effect may be due to the large interindividual variation in isoflavone bioavailability in general and equol production in particular. Equol, a microbial metabolite of daidzein, has been hypothesized as a clue to the effectiveness of soy and its isoflavones, but only about 30-50\% of the population harbor an intestinal microbial ecosystem supporting the conversion of daidzein into equol. There is much concern on breast cancer, since this incidence of this disease increases with age. There is indication that soy phytoestrogens may decrease this breast cancer incidence. In order to evaluate the estrogenic potential of these exposure levels, we studied the isoflavone-derived E2\ensuremath{\alpha}- and E2\ensuremath{\beta}-equivalents (i.e. 17\ensuremath{\beta}-estradiol (E2)-equivalents towards ER\ensuremath{\alpha} and ER\ensuremath{\beta}, respectively) in human breast tissue. Total isoflavones showed a breast adipose/glandular tissue distribution of 40/60 and their derived E2\ensuremath{\beta}-equivalents exceeded on average 21 {\textpm} 4 and 40 {\textpm} 10 times the endogenous E2 concentrations in corresponding adipose and glandular biopsies, respectively, whereas the E2\ensuremath{\alpha}/E2 ratios were 0.4 {\textpm} 0.1 and 0.8 {\textpm} 0.2 in adipose and glandular breast tissue, respectively. These calculations suggest that, at least in this case, soy consumption could elicit partial ER\ensuremath{\beta} agonistic effects in human breast tissue. We are currently characterizing the differential activation of estrogen-responsive genes between dietary isoflavones, the chemopreventive selective ER modulators tamoxifen and raloxifene and exogenous estrogens in a controlled dietary intervention trial that integrates data on the exposure to estrogenically active compounds, expression of isoflavone and estrogen target genes, and epigenetic events. During the menopause, there is a close relation between the drop in serum estrogen and negative metabolic changes such as the increase in bone resorption and negative change in the serum lipid profile. Randomized controlled trials measuring bone turnover markers in menopausal women revealed that soy isoflavone supplements significantly but moderately decrease the bone resorption marker urinary deoxypyridinoline without significant effects on the bone formation markers serum bone alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin.},
  author       = {Bolca, Selin and Bracke, Marc and Depypere, Herman},
  issn         = {2032-0418},
  journal      = {FACTS, VIEWS \& VISION IN OBGYN},
  keyword      = {phytoestrogens,soy,menopause,lipid profile,isoflavones,Bone resorption,estrogens},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {30--37},
  title        = {Soy consumption during menopause},
  volume       = {4},
  year         = {2012},
}