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Resistance to chytridiomycosis in European plethodontid salamanders of the genus Speleomantes

(2013) PLOS ONE. 8(5).
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Abstract
North America and the neotropics harbor nearly all species of plethodontid salamanders. In contrast, this family of caudate amphibians is represented in Europe and Asia by two genera, Speleomantes and Karsenia, which are confined to small geographic ranges. Compared to neotropical and North American plethodontids, mortality attributed to chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has not been reported for European plethodontids, despite the established presence of Bd in their geographic distribution. We determined the extent to which Bd is present in populations of all eight species of European Speleomantes and show that Bd was undetectable in 921 skin swabs. We then compared the susceptibility of one of these species, Speleomantes strinatii, to experimental infection with a highly virulent isolate of Bd (BdGPL), and compared this to the susceptible species Alytes muletensis. Whereas the inoculated A. muletensis developed increasing Bd-loads over a 4-week period, none of five exposed S. strinatii were colonized by Bd beyond 2 weeks post inoculation. Finally, we determined the extent to which skin secretions of Speleomantes species are capable of killing Bd. Skin secretions of seven Speleomantes species showed pronounced killing activity against Bd over 24 hours. In conclusion, the absence of Bd in Speleomantes combined with resistance to experimental chytridiomycosis and highly efficient skin defenses indicate that the genus Speleomantes is a taxon unlikely to decline due to Bd.
Keywords
CHYTRID FUNGUS, PATHOGEN BATRACHOCHYTRIUM-DENDROBATIDIS, AMBYSTOMA-TIGRINUM, AMPHIBIAN DECLINES, ETHIDIUM MONOAZIDE, PEPTIDE DEFENSES, IMMUNE DEFENSES, LOW-PREVALENCE, SKIN, FROG

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Citation

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Chicago
Pasmans, Frank, Pascale Van Rooij, Mark Blooi, Giulia Tessa, Sergé Bogaerts, Giuseppe Sotgiu, Trenton WJ Garner, et al. 2013. “Resistance to Chytridiomycosis in European Plethodontid Salamanders of the Genus Speleomantes.” Plos One 8 (5).
APA
Pasmans, F., Van Rooij, P., Blooi, M., Tessa, G., Bogaerts, S., Sotgiu, G., Garner, T. W., et al. (2013). Resistance to chytridiomycosis in European plethodontid salamanders of the genus Speleomantes. PLOS ONE, 8(5).
Vancouver
1.
Pasmans F, Van Rooij P, Blooi M, Tessa G, Bogaerts S, Sotgiu G, et al. Resistance to chytridiomycosis in European plethodontid salamanders of the genus Speleomantes. PLOS ONE. 2013;8(5).
MLA
Pasmans, Frank, Pascale Van Rooij, Mark Blooi, et al. “Resistance to Chytridiomycosis in European Plethodontid Salamanders of the Genus Speleomantes.” PLOS ONE 8.5 (2013): n. pag. Print.
@article{3236591,
  abstract     = {North America and the neotropics harbor nearly all species of plethodontid salamanders. In contrast, this family of caudate amphibians is represented in Europe and Asia by two genera, Speleomantes and Karsenia, which are confined to small geographic ranges. Compared to neotropical and North American plethodontids, mortality attributed to chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has not been reported for European plethodontids, despite the established presence of Bd in their geographic distribution. We determined the extent to which Bd is present in populations of all eight species of European Speleomantes and show that Bd was undetectable in 921 skin swabs. We then compared the susceptibility of one of these species, Speleomantes strinatii, to experimental infection with a highly virulent isolate of Bd (BdGPL), and compared this to the susceptible species Alytes muletensis. Whereas the inoculated A. muletensis developed increasing Bd-loads over a 4-week period, none of five exposed S. strinatii were colonized by Bd beyond 2 weeks post inoculation. Finally, we determined the extent to which skin secretions of Speleomantes species are capable of killing Bd. Skin secretions of seven Speleomantes species showed pronounced killing activity against Bd over 24 hours. In conclusion, the absence of Bd in Speleomantes combined with resistance to experimental chytridiomycosis and highly efficient skin defenses indicate that the genus Speleomantes is a taxon unlikely to decline due to Bd.},
  articleno    = {e63639},
  author       = {Pasmans, Frank and Van Rooij, Pascale and Blooi, Mark and Tessa, Giulia and Bogaerts, Serg{\'e} and Sotgiu, Giuseppe and Garner, Trenton WJ and Fisher, Matthew and Schmidt, Benedikt R and Woeltjes, Tonnie and Beukema, Wouter and Bovero, Stefano and Adriaensen, Connie and Oneto, Fabrizio and Ottonello, Dario and Martel, An and Salvidio, Sebastiano},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  keyword      = {CHYTRID FUNGUS,PATHOGEN BATRACHOCHYTRIUM-DENDROBATIDIS,AMBYSTOMA-TIGRINUM,AMPHIBIAN DECLINES,ETHIDIUM MONOAZIDE,PEPTIDE DEFENSES,IMMUNE DEFENSES,LOW-PREVALENCE,SKIN,FROG},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {6},
  title        = {Resistance to chytridiomycosis in European plethodontid salamanders of the genus Speleomantes},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063639},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2013},
}

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