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Comparative effects of insecticides with different mechanisms of action on Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): lethal, sublethal and dose–response effects

(2013) INSECT SCIENCE. 20(6). p.743-752
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Abstract
The comprehensive knowledge that the delayed systemic and reproduction side effects can be even more deleterious than acute toxicity, has caused a shift in focus toward sublethal effects assessment on physiology and behavior of beneficial insects. In this study, we assessed the risks posed by some insecticides with different mode of action through lethal and delayed systemic sublethal effects on the pupation, adult emergence, and reproduction of the chrysopid Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861; Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), an important predator in pest biological control. The maximum field recommended dose (MFRD) and twice (2xMFRD) for chlorantraniliprole, tebufenozide, and pyriproxyfen were harmless to C. externa. In contrast, all the tested chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) were highly detrimental to the predator, despite of their lack of acute lethal toxicity. Therefore, the safety assumed by using IGRs toward beneficial insects is not valid for chrysopids. Dose-response data showed that although all CSIs have a similar mechanism of action, the relative extent of toxicity may differ (novaluron > lufenuron > teflubenzuron). For CSIs, the delayed systemic effects became obvious at adult emergence, where the predicted no observable effect dose (NOED) was 1/2048 of the MFRD for novaluron (0.085 ng/insect), and 1/256 of the MFRD for both lufenuron (0.25 ng/insect) and teflubenzuron (0.6 ng/insect). Finally, this work emphasized the significance of performing toxicity risk assessments with an adequate posttreatment period to avoid underestimating the toxicities of insecticides, as the acute lethal toxicity assays may not provide accurate information regarding the long-range effects of hazardous compounds.
Keywords
BUMBLEBEES, AZADIRACHTIN, TOXICITY, TEBUFENOZIDE, PESTICIDES, CARNEA NEUROPTERA, PEST-MANAGEMENT, ECDYSONE AGONISTS, LABORATORY CONDITIONS, BIOLOGICAL-CONTROL AGENTS, topical application, insecticide risk assessment, dose-response effects, ecotoxicology, IGRs, Chrysoperla externa

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Chicago
Zotti, Moises João, Anderson Dionel Grutzmacher, Isac Heres Lopes, and Guy Smagghe. 2013. “Comparative Effects of Insecticides with Different Mechanisms of Action on Chrysoperla Externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): Lethal, Sublethal and Dose–response Effects.” Insect Science 20 (6): 743–752.
APA
Zotti, M. J., Grutzmacher, A. D., Lopes, I. H., & Smagghe, G. (2013). Comparative effects of insecticides with different mechanisms of action on Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): lethal, sublethal and dose–response effects. INSECT SCIENCE, 20(6), 743–752.
Vancouver
1.
Zotti MJ, Grutzmacher AD, Lopes IH, Smagghe G. Comparative effects of insecticides with different mechanisms of action on Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): lethal, sublethal and dose–response effects. INSECT SCIENCE. 2013;20(6):743–52.
MLA
Zotti, Moises João, Anderson Dionel Grutzmacher, Isac Heres Lopes, et al. “Comparative Effects of Insecticides with Different Mechanisms of Action on Chrysoperla Externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): Lethal, Sublethal and Dose–response Effects.” INSECT SCIENCE 20.6 (2013): 743–752. Print.
@article{3236186,
  abstract     = {The comprehensive knowledge that the delayed systemic and reproduction side effects can be even more deleterious than acute toxicity, has caused a shift in focus toward sublethal effects assessment on physiology and behavior of beneficial insects. In this study, we assessed the risks posed by some insecticides with different mode of action through lethal and delayed systemic sublethal effects on the pupation, adult emergence, and reproduction of the chrysopid Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861; Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), an important predator in pest biological control. The maximum field recommended dose (MFRD) and twice (2xMFRD) for chlorantraniliprole, tebufenozide, and pyriproxyfen were harmless to C. externa. In contrast, all the tested chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) were highly detrimental to the predator, despite of their lack of acute lethal toxicity. Therefore, the safety assumed by using IGRs toward beneficial insects is not valid for chrysopids. Dose-response data showed that although all CSIs have a similar mechanism of action, the relative extent of toxicity may differ (novaluron {\textrangle} lufenuron {\textrangle} teflubenzuron). For CSIs, the delayed systemic effects became obvious at adult emergence, where the predicted no observable effect dose (NOED) was 1/2048 of the MFRD for novaluron (0.085 ng/insect), and 1/256 of the MFRD for both lufenuron (0.25 ng/insect) and teflubenzuron (0.6 ng/insect). Finally, this work emphasized the significance of performing toxicity risk assessments with an adequate posttreatment period to avoid underestimating the toxicities of insecticides, as the acute lethal toxicity assays may not provide accurate information regarding the long-range effects of hazardous compounds.},
  author       = {Zotti, Moises Jo{\~a}o and Grutzmacher, Anderson Dionel and Lopes, Isac Heres and Smagghe, Guy},
  issn         = {1672-9609},
  journal      = {INSECT SCIENCE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {743--752},
  title        = {Comparative effects of insecticides with different mechanisms of action on Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): lethal, sublethal and dose--response effects},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-7917.12008},
  volume       = {20},
  year         = {2013},
}

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