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Influence of variations in systemic blood flow and pressure on cerebral and systemic oxygen saturation in cardiopulmonary bypass patients

Anneliese Moerman (UGent) , WOUTER DENYS (UGent) , Filip De Somer (UGent) , Patrick Wouters (UGent) and Stefan De Hert (UGent)
(2013) BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA. 111(4). p.619-626
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Abstract
Background. Although both pressure and flow are considered important determinants of regional organ perfusion, the relative importance of each is less established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of variations in flow, pressure, or both on cerebral and whole-body oxygen saturation. Methods. Thirty-four consenting patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass were included. Using a randomized cross-over design, four different haemodynamic states were simulated: (i) 20% flow decrease, (ii) 20% flow decrease with phenylephrine to restore baseline pressure, (iii) 20% pressure decrease with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) under baseline flow, and (iv) increased flow with baseline pressure. The effect of these changes was evaluated on cerebral (ScO2) and systemic (SvO2) oxygen saturation, and on systemic oxygen extraction ratio (OER). Data were assessed by within- and between-group comparisons. Results. Decrease in flow was associated with a decrease in ScO2 [from 63.5 (7.4) to 62.0 (8.5) %, P,0.001]. When arterial pressure was restored with phenylephrine during low flow, ScO2 further decreased from 61.0 (9.7) to 59.2 (10.2) %, P,0.001. Increase in flow was associated with an increase in ScO2 from 62.6 (7.7) to 63.6 (8.9) %, P¼0.03, while decreases in pressure with the use of SNP did not affect ScO2 . SvO2 was significantly lower (P,0.001) and OER was significantly higher (P,0.001) in the low flow arms. Conclusions. In the present elective cardiac surgery population, ScO2 and SvO2 were significantly lower with lower flow, regardless of systemic arterial pressure. Moreover, phenylephrine administration was associated with a reduced cerebral and systemic oxygen saturation.
Keywords
spectroscopy, phenylephrine, oximetry, cardiopulmonary bypass, near-infrared, cerebral tissue oxygen saturation

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Chicago
Moerman, Anneliese, WOUTER DENYS, Filip De Somer, Patrick Wouters, and Stefan De Hert. 2013. “Influence of Variations in Systemic Blood Flow and Pressure on Cerebral and Systemic Oxygen Saturation in Cardiopulmonary Bypass Patients.” British Journal of Anaesthesia 111 (4): 619–626.
APA
Moerman, Anneliese, DENYS, W., De Somer, F., Wouters, P., & De Hert, S. (2013). Influence of variations in systemic blood flow and pressure on cerebral and systemic oxygen saturation in cardiopulmonary bypass patients. BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, 111(4), 619–626.
Vancouver
1.
Moerman A, DENYS W, De Somer F, Wouters P, De Hert S. Influence of variations in systemic blood flow and pressure on cerebral and systemic oxygen saturation in cardiopulmonary bypass patients. BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA. 2013;111(4):619–26.
MLA
Moerman, Anneliese, WOUTER DENYS, Filip De Somer, et al. “Influence of Variations in Systemic Blood Flow and Pressure on Cerebral and Systemic Oxygen Saturation in Cardiopulmonary Bypass Patients.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA 111.4 (2013): 619–626. Print.
@article{3234405,
  abstract     = {Background. Although both pressure and flow are considered important determinants of regional organ perfusion, the relative importance of each is less established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of variations in flow, pressure, or both on cerebral and whole-body oxygen saturation.
Methods. Thirty-four consenting patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass were included. Using a randomized cross-over design, four different haemodynamic states were simulated: (i) 20% flow decrease, (ii) 20% flow decrease with phenylephrine to restore baseline pressure, (iii) 20% pressure decrease with
sodium nitroprusside (SNP) under baseline flow, and (iv) increased flow with baseline pressure. The effect of these changes was evaluated on cerebral (ScO2) and systemic (SvO2) oxygen saturation, and on systemic oxygen extraction ratio (OER). Data were assessed by within- and between-group comparisons.
Results. Decrease in flow was associated with a decrease in ScO2 [from 63.5 (7.4) to 62.0 (8.5) %, P,0.001]. When arterial pressure was restored with phenylephrine during low flow, ScO2 further decreased from 61.0 (9.7) to 59.2 (10.2) %, P,0.001. Increase in flow was associated with an increase in ScO2 from 62.6 (7.7) to 63.6 (8.9) %, P¼0.03, while decreases in pressure with the use of SNP did not affect ScO2 . SvO2 was significantly lower (P,0.001) and OER was significantly higher (P,0.001) in the low flow arms.
Conclusions. In the present elective cardiac surgery population, ScO2 and SvO2 were significantly lower with lower flow, regardless of systemic arterial pressure. Moreover, phenylephrine administration was associated with a reduced cerebral and systemic oxygen saturation.},
  author       = {Moerman, Anneliese and DENYS, WOUTER and De Somer, Filip and Wouters, Patrick and De Hert, Stefan},
  issn         = {0007-0912},
  journal      = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA},
  keywords     = {spectroscopy,phenylephrine,oximetry,cardiopulmonary bypass,near-infrared,cerebral tissue oxygen saturation},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {619--626},
  title        = {Influence of variations in systemic blood flow and pressure on cerebral and systemic oxygen saturation in cardiopulmonary bypass patients},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bja/aet197},
  volume       = {111},
  year         = {2013},
}

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