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The biosynthetic gene cluster for sophorolipids : a biotechnological interesting biosurfactant produced by Starmerella bombicola

Inge Van Bogaert (UGent) , Kevin Holvoet (UGent) , Sophie Roelants (UGent) , Bing Li (UGent) , Yao-Cheng Lin (UGent) , Yves Van de Peer (UGent) and Wim Soetaert (UGent)
(2013) MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY. 88(3). p.501-509
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Organization
Project
Bioinformatics: from nucleotids to networks (N2N)
Abstract
Sophorolipids are promising biological derived surfactants or detergents which find application in household cleaning, personal care and cosmetics. They are produced by specific yeast species and among those, Starmerella bombicola (former Candida bombicola) is the most widely used and studied one. Despite the commercial interest in sophorolipids, the biosynthetic pathway of these secondary metabolites remained hitherto partially unsolved. In this manuscript we present the sophorolipid gene cluster consisting of five genes directly involved in sophorolipid synthesis: a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, two glucosyltransferases, an acetyltransferase and a transporter. It was demonstrated that disabling the first step of the pathway cytochrome P450 monooxygenase mediated terminal or subterminal hydroxylation of a common fatty acid results in complete abolishment of sophorolipid production. This phenotype could be complemented by supplying the yeast with hydroxylated fatty acids. On the other hand, knocking out the transporter gene yields mutants still able to secrete sophorolipids, though only at levels of 10% as compared with the wild type, suggesting alternative routes for secretion. Finally, it was proved that hampering sophorolipid production does not affect cell growth or cell viability in laboratory conditions, as can be expected for secondary metabolites.
Keywords
TRANSFORMATION, IDENTIFICATION, EAST CANDIDA-BOMBICOLA, USTILAGO-MAYDIS, STEP, LIPIDS

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Chicago
Van Bogaert, Inge, Kevin Holvoet, Sophie Roelants, Bing Li, Yao-Cheng Lin, Yves Van de Peer, and Wim Soetaert. 2013. “The Biosynthetic Gene Cluster for Sophorolipids : a Biotechnological Interesting Biosurfactant Produced by Starmerella Bombicola.” Molecular Microbiology 88 (3): 501–509.
APA
Van Bogaert, Inge, Holvoet, K., Roelants, S., Li, B., Lin, Y.-C., Van de Peer, Y., & Soetaert, W. (2013). The biosynthetic gene cluster for sophorolipids : a biotechnological interesting biosurfactant produced by Starmerella bombicola. MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY, 88(3), 501–509.
Vancouver
1.
Van Bogaert I, Holvoet K, Roelants S, Li B, Lin Y-C, Van de Peer Y, et al. The biosynthetic gene cluster for sophorolipids : a biotechnological interesting biosurfactant produced by Starmerella bombicola. MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY. 2013;88(3):501–9.
MLA
Van Bogaert, Inge, Kevin Holvoet, Sophie Roelants, et al. “The Biosynthetic Gene Cluster for Sophorolipids : a Biotechnological Interesting Biosurfactant Produced by Starmerella Bombicola.” MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY 88.3 (2013): 501–509. Print.
@article{3233799,
  abstract     = {Sophorolipids are promising biological derived surfactants or detergents which find application in household cleaning, personal care and cosmetics. They are produced by specific yeast species and among those, Starmerella bombicola (former Candida bombicola) is the most widely used and studied one. Despite the commercial interest in sophorolipids, the biosynthetic pathway of these secondary metabolites remained hitherto partially unsolved. In this manuscript we present the sophorolipid gene cluster consisting of five genes directly involved in sophorolipid synthesis: a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, two glucosyltransferases, an acetyltransferase and a transporter. It was demonstrated that disabling the first step of the pathway cytochrome P450 monooxygenase mediated terminal or subterminal hydroxylation of a common fatty acid results in complete abolishment of sophorolipid production. This phenotype could be complemented by supplying the yeast with hydroxylated fatty acids. On the other hand, knocking out the transporter gene yields mutants still able to secrete sophorolipids, though only at levels of 10\% as compared with the wild type, suggesting alternative routes for secretion. Finally, it was proved that hampering sophorolipid production does not affect cell growth or cell viability in laboratory conditions, as can be expected for secondary metabolites.},
  author       = {Van Bogaert, Inge and Holvoet, Kevin and Roelants, Sophie and Li, Bing and Lin, Yao-Cheng and Van de Peer, Yves and Soetaert, Wim},
  issn         = {0950-382X},
  journal      = {MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {TRANSFORMATION,IDENTIFICATION,EAST CANDIDA-BOMBICOLA,USTILAGO-MAYDIS,STEP,LIPIDS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {501--509},
  title        = {The biosynthetic gene cluster for sophorolipids : a biotechnological interesting biosurfactant produced by Starmerella bombicola},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.12200},
  volume       = {88},
  year         = {2013},
}

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