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A review of contraceptive practices among married and unmarried women in China from 1982 to 2010

Jinke Li (UGent) , Marleen Temmerman (UGent) , Quiju Chen, Jialin Xu and Wei Hong Zhang (UGent)
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Abstract
Objective : To analyse the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) among – and contraceptive methods used by – married and unmarried women in China, from 1982 to 2010. Method : Data concerning married women were collected from national surveys conducted by the Chinese government. Those pertaining to unmarried women were obtained by searching the China Academic Journal Network Publishing database and PubMed. Results : CPR among married women in China was 89% in 2010, the highest in the world. Most married women use long-acting reversible contraceptives, particularly intrauterine devices, and sterilisation. CPR among sexually active unmarried women has fl uctuated between 17 and 70% since 1988, although the frequency of condom use has increased (Cochran-Armitage trend test, χ 2  126.1, p  0.001). More than 25% of unmarried women rely since at least 1982 on less effective contraceptive methods, including rhythm and withdrawal. This has led to an annual induced abortion rate of approximately 20% among those women. Conclusion : In sharp contrast to the high CPR among married women, the rate among sexually active unmarried women in China has remained extremely low since 1988. More efforts should be directed at raising contraception awareness among this population to improve their reproductive health and reduce the rate of unwanted pregnancy.
Keywords
Contraception, China, Unmarried women, Married women, SERVICES, ABORTION, HISTORY, TRENDS

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MLA
Li, Jinke, Marleen Temmerman, Quiju Chen, et al. “A Review of Contraceptive Practices Among Married and Unmarried Women in China from 1982 to 2010.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CONTRACEPTION AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH CARE 18.3 (2013): 148–158. Print.
APA
Li, Jinke, Temmerman, M., Chen, Q., Xu, J., & Zhang, W. H. (2013). A review of contraceptive practices among married and unmarried women in China from 1982 to 2010. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CONTRACEPTION AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH CARE, 18(3), 148–158.
Chicago author-date
Li, Jinke, Marleen Temmerman, Quiju Chen, Jialin Xu, and Wei Hong Zhang. 2013. “A Review of Contraceptive Practices Among Married and Unmarried Women in China from 1982 to 2010.” European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care 18 (3): 148–158.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Li, Jinke, Marleen Temmerman, Quiju Chen, Jialin Xu, and Wei Hong Zhang. 2013. “A Review of Contraceptive Practices Among Married and Unmarried Women in China from 1982 to 2010.” European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care 18 (3): 148–158.
Vancouver
1.
Li J, Temmerman M, Chen Q, Xu J, Zhang WH. A review of contraceptive practices among married and unmarried women in China from 1982 to 2010. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CONTRACEPTION AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH CARE. 2013;18(3):148–58.
IEEE
[1]
J. Li, M. Temmerman, Q. Chen, J. Xu, and W. H. Zhang, “A review of contraceptive practices among married and unmarried women in China from 1982 to 2010,” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CONTRACEPTION AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH CARE, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 148–158, 2013.
@article{3232704,
  abstract     = {Objective : To analyse the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) among – and contraceptive methods used by – married and unmarried women in China, from 1982 to 2010.
Method : Data concerning married women were collected from national surveys conducted by the Chinese government. Those pertaining to unmarried women were obtained by searching the China Academic Journal Network Publishing database and PubMed.
Results : CPR among married women in China was 89% in 2010, the highest in the world. Most married women use long-acting reversible contraceptives, particularly intrauterine devices, and sterilisation. CPR among sexually active unmarried women has fl uctuated between 17 and 70% since 1988, although the frequency of condom use has increased (Cochran-Armitage trend test, χ 2  126.1, p  0.001). More than 25% of unmarried women rely since at least 1982 on less effective contraceptive methods, including rhythm and withdrawal. This has led to an annual induced abortion rate of approximately 20% among those women.
Conclusion : In sharp contrast to the high CPR among married women, the rate among sexually active unmarried women in China has remained extremely low since 1988. More efforts should be directed at raising contraception awareness among this population to improve their reproductive health and reduce the rate of unwanted pregnancy.},
  author       = {Li, Jinke and Temmerman, Marleen and Chen, Quiju and Xu, Jialin and Zhang, Wei Hong},
  issn         = {1362-5187},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CONTRACEPTION AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH CARE},
  keywords     = {Contraception,China,Unmarried women,Married women,SERVICES,ABORTION,HISTORY,TRENDS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {148--158},
  title        = {A review of contraceptive practices among married and unmarried women in China from 1982 to 2010},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13625187.2013.776673},
  volume       = {18},
  year         = {2013},
}

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