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Development and validation of A quasi-dimensional model for (M)Ethanol-Fuelled SI engines

Jeroen Vancoillie (UGent) , Sebastian Verhelst (UGent) , Louis Sileghem (UGent) , Joachim Demuynck (UGent) and Jonas Galle (UGent)
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Abstract
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE - The use of methanol and ethanol in spark-ignition engines forms an interesting approach to decarbonizing transport and securing domestic energy supply. Experimental work has produced promising results, however, the full potential of light alcohols in modern engine technology remains to be explored. Today, this can be addressed at low cost using system simulations of the whole engine, provided that the employed models account for the effect of the fuel on engine operation. The goal of current work is to develop an engine cycle model that can accurately predict performance, efficiency, pollutant emissions and knock onset in state-of-the-art neat alcohol engines. METHODOLOGY - Two-zone thermodynamic engine modeling, in combination with 1D gas dynamics, is put forward as a useful tool for cheap and fast optimization of engines. Typically, this model class derives the mass burning rate of fuel from turbulent combustion models. A fundamental building block of turbulent combustion models is an expression for the laminar burning velocity of the fuel-air-residuals mixture at instantaneous cylinder pressure and temperature. This physicochemical property basically groups the contribution of the chemical reactions (of the fuel) to combustion. Consequently, an important part of our study consisted of calculating (using chemical kinetics) and measuring the laminar burning velocity of methanol and ethanol at engine-like conditions. In order to validate the developed engine model, its predictions were compared against a database of experimental results obtained on three different flex-fuel and dedicated alcohol engines. RESULTS - Comparison of the experimental and simulated cylinder, intake and exhaust pressure traces confirmed the predictive power of our engine model for methanol-fuelled engines. A wide variety of engine operating points were accurately reproduced thanks to a new laminar burning velocity correlation, which correctly accounts for changes in pressure, temperature, mixture richness and residual ratio. The Flame Closure Model of Zimont-Lipatnikov emerged as the most widely applicable model from a comparison of several turbulent combustion models. With regard to the gas dynamics it proved necessary to include a fuel puddling submodel to take the cooling effect due to alcohol injection into consideration. LIMITATIONS - The developed model was successfully validated for normal combustion in port-injected neat methanol engines. The validation of the routines for ethanol combustion and engines with direct injection is part of ongoing work. Now that normal combustion can be accurately simulated, further work will look at the prediction of pollutant emissions and knock onset in these engines. NOVELTY - This paper presents the first recent attempt to model the application of neat alcohols in modern and anticipated future engine technologies. Compared to previous work the effects of in-cylinder and mixture conditions on the combustion are more accurately predicted thanks to the inclusion of a new and widely validated laminar burning velocity correlation. In contrast to other studies, the current experimental database also includes measurements on turbocharged, high compression ratio engines with elevated amounts of EGR, which is representative of future dedicated alcohol engines. CONCLUSIONS - The current work focused on adapting the various submodels of quasi-dimensional engine codes to the properties of light alcohols. The developed simulation tools can be used with confidence to optimize current and future engines running on neat methanol and ethanol. This work also forms the starting point for an extension of the modelling concepts to alcohol-gasoline blends, which hold more industrial relevance.
Keywords
Thermodynamic, Modeling, Spark Ignition Engine, Alcohols

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MLA
Vancoillie, Jeroen et al. “Development and Validation of A Quasi-dimensional Model for (M)Ethanol-Fuelled SI Engines.” Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Vol. 189. London, UK: Springer Heidelberg, 2012. 977–994. Print.
APA
Vancoillie, J., Verhelst, S., Sileghem, L., Demuynck, J., & Galle, J. (2012). Development and validation of A quasi-dimensional model for (M)Ethanol-Fuelled SI engines. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering (Vol. 189, pp. 977–994). Presented at the 34th FISITA World Automotive Congress (FISITA 2012), London, UK: Springer Heidelberg.
Chicago author-date
Vancoillie, Jeroen, Sebastian Verhelst, Louis Sileghem, Joachim Demuynck, and Jonas Galle. 2012. “Development and Validation of A Quasi-dimensional Model for (M)Ethanol-Fuelled SI Engines.” In Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 189:977–994. London, UK: Springer Heidelberg.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Vancoillie, Jeroen, Sebastian Verhelst, Louis Sileghem, Joachim Demuynck, and Jonas Galle. 2012. “Development and Validation of A Quasi-dimensional Model for (M)Ethanol-Fuelled SI Engines.” In Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 189:977–994. London, UK: Springer Heidelberg.
Vancouver
1.
Vancoillie J, Verhelst S, Sileghem L, Demuynck J, Galle J. Development and validation of A quasi-dimensional model for (M)Ethanol-Fuelled SI engines. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. London, UK: Springer Heidelberg; 2012. p. 977–94.
IEEE
[1]
J. Vancoillie, S. Verhelst, L. Sileghem, J. Demuynck, and J. Galle, “Development and validation of A quasi-dimensional model for (M)Ethanol-Fuelled SI engines,” in Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, Beijing, China, 2012, vol. 189, pp. 977–994.
@inproceedings{3223475,
  abstract     = {RESEARCH OBJECTIVE - The use of methanol and ethanol in spark-ignition engines forms an interesting approach to decarbonizing transport and securing domestic energy supply. Experimental work has produced promising results, however, the full potential of light alcohols in modern engine technology remains to be explored. Today, this can be addressed at low cost using system simulations of the whole engine, provided that the employed models account for the effect of the fuel on engine operation. The goal of current work is to develop an engine cycle model that can accurately predict performance, efficiency, pollutant emissions and knock onset in state-of-the-art neat alcohol engines. METHODOLOGY - Two-zone thermodynamic engine modeling, in combination with 1D gas dynamics, is put forward as a useful tool for cheap and fast optimization of engines. Typically, this model class derives the mass burning rate of fuel from turbulent combustion models. A fundamental building block of turbulent combustion models is an expression for the laminar burning velocity of the fuel-air-residuals mixture at instantaneous cylinder pressure and temperature. This physicochemical property basically groups the contribution of the chemical reactions (of the fuel) to combustion. Consequently, an important part of our study consisted of calculating (using chemical kinetics) and measuring the laminar burning velocity of methanol and ethanol at engine-like conditions. In order to validate the developed engine model, its predictions were compared against a database of experimental results obtained on three different flex-fuel and dedicated alcohol engines. RESULTS - Comparison of the experimental and simulated cylinder, intake and exhaust pressure traces confirmed the predictive power of our engine model for methanol-fuelled engines. A wide variety of engine operating points were accurately reproduced thanks to a new laminar burning velocity correlation, which correctly accounts for changes in pressure, temperature, mixture richness and residual ratio. The Flame Closure Model of Zimont-Lipatnikov emerged as the most widely applicable model from a comparison of several turbulent combustion models. With regard to the gas dynamics it proved necessary to include a fuel puddling submodel to take the cooling effect due to alcohol injection into consideration. LIMITATIONS - The developed model was successfully validated for normal combustion in port-injected neat methanol engines. The validation of the routines for ethanol combustion and engines with direct injection is part of ongoing work. Now that normal combustion can be accurately simulated, further work will look at the prediction of pollutant emissions and knock onset in these engines. NOVELTY - This paper presents the first recent attempt to model the application of neat alcohols in modern and anticipated future engine technologies. Compared to previous work the effects of in-cylinder and mixture conditions on the combustion are more accurately predicted thanks to the inclusion of a new and widely validated laminar burning velocity correlation. In contrast to other studies, the current experimental database also includes measurements on turbocharged, high compression ratio engines with elevated amounts of EGR, which is representative of future dedicated alcohol engines. CONCLUSIONS - The current work focused on adapting the various submodels of quasi-dimensional engine codes to the properties of light alcohols. The developed simulation tools can be used with confidence to optimize current and future engines running on neat methanol and ethanol. This work also forms the starting point for an extension of the modelling concepts to alcohol-gasoline blends, which hold more industrial relevance.},
  articleno    = {F2012-A06-019},
  author       = {Vancoillie, Jeroen and Verhelst, Sebastian and Sileghem, Louis and Demuynck, Joachim and Galle, Jonas},
  booktitle    = {Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering},
  isbn         = {9783642338403},
  issn         = {1876-1100},
  keywords     = {Thermodynamic,Modeling,Spark Ignition Engine,Alcohols},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Beijing, China},
  pages        = {F2012-A06-019:977--F2012-A06-019:994},
  publisher    = {Springer Heidelberg},
  title        = {Development and validation of A quasi-dimensional model for (M)Ethanol-Fuelled SI engines},
  volume       = {189},
  year         = {2012},
}