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Shaft speed ripples in wind turbines caused by tower shadow and wind shear

Jeroen De Kooning (UGent) , Tine Vandoorn (UGent) , Jan Van de Vyver (UGent) , Bart Meersman (UGent) and Lieven Vandevelde (UGent)
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Abstract
Wind turbines are an important source of renewable energy. Although the amount of wind turbine installations has known a considerable increase in recent years, technological improvements are still needed to increase their efficiency. An important subject is the presence of vibrations. For instance, ripples can be present in the torque and shaft speed, which can be caused by turbulence of the air flow, resonance or mechanical problems. Furthermore, tower shadow and wind shear are able to cause significant torque oscillations. In literature, a mathematical model of the torque oscillations has been presented for three-bladed horizontal-axis upwind turbines. However, it remains unclear what the impact is of these torque oscillations on the shaft speed. When ripples are present in the shaft speed, they affect the back-emf and electrical power of the generator and could propagate further in the system. Therefore, this paper investigates whether this effect is large enough to have a considerable impact on the system. The turbine size and turbine inertia are both crucial in this research. It will be shown by mathematical proof that the relative amount of shaft speed ripples caused by tower shadow and wind shear is independent of turbine size.
Keywords
TURBULENCE, REDUCTION, GENERATOR, PERFORMANCE

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MLA
De Kooning, Jeroen, et al. “Shaft Speed Ripples in Wind Turbines Caused by Tower Shadow and Wind Shear.” IET RENEWABLE POWER GENERATION, vol. 8, no. 2, The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), 2014, pp. 195–202, doi:10.1049/iet-rpg.2013.0008.
APA
De Kooning, J., Vandoorn, T., Van de Vyver, J., Meersman, B., & Vandevelde, L. (2014). Shaft speed ripples in wind turbines caused by tower shadow and wind shear. IET RENEWABLE POWER GENERATION, 8(2), 195–202. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-rpg.2013.0008
Chicago author-date
De Kooning, Jeroen, Tine Vandoorn, Jan Van de Vyver, Bart Meersman, and Lieven Vandevelde. 2014. “Shaft Speed Ripples in Wind Turbines Caused by Tower Shadow and Wind Shear.” IET RENEWABLE POWER GENERATION 8 (2): 195–202. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-rpg.2013.0008.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Kooning, Jeroen, Tine Vandoorn, Jan Van de Vyver, Bart Meersman, and Lieven Vandevelde. 2014. “Shaft Speed Ripples in Wind Turbines Caused by Tower Shadow and Wind Shear.” IET RENEWABLE POWER GENERATION 8 (2): 195–202. doi:10.1049/iet-rpg.2013.0008.
Vancouver
1.
De Kooning J, Vandoorn T, Van de Vyver J, Meersman B, Vandevelde L. Shaft speed ripples in wind turbines caused by tower shadow and wind shear. IET RENEWABLE POWER GENERATION. 2014;8(2):195–202.
IEEE
[1]
J. De Kooning, T. Vandoorn, J. Van de Vyver, B. Meersman, and L. Vandevelde, “Shaft speed ripples in wind turbines caused by tower shadow and wind shear,” IET RENEWABLE POWER GENERATION, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 195–202, 2014.
@article{3223238,
  abstract     = {{Wind turbines are an important source of renewable energy. Although the amount of wind turbine installations has known a considerable increase in recent years,  technological improvements are still needed to increase their efficiency. An important subject is the presence of vibrations. For instance, ripples can be present in the torque and shaft speed, which can be caused by turbulence of the air flow, resonance or mechanical problems. Furthermore, tower shadow and wind shear are able to cause significant torque oscillations. In literature, a mathematical model of the torque oscillations has been presented for three-bladed horizontal-axis upwind turbines. However, it remains unclear what the impact is of these torque oscillations on the shaft speed. When ripples are present in the shaft speed, they affect the back-emf and electrical power of the generator and could propagate further in the system. Therefore, this paper investigates whether this effect is large enough to have a considerable impact on the system. The turbine size and turbine inertia are both crucial in this research. It will be shown by mathematical proof that the relative amount of shaft speed ripples caused by tower shadow and wind shear is independent of turbine size.}},
  author       = {{De Kooning, Jeroen and Vandoorn, Tine and Van de Vyver, Jan and Meersman, Bart and Vandevelde, Lieven}},
  issn         = {{1752-1416}},
  journal      = {{IET RENEWABLE POWER GENERATION}},
  keywords     = {{TURBULENCE,REDUCTION,GENERATOR,PERFORMANCE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{2}},
  pages        = {{195--202}},
  publisher    = {{The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET)}},
  title        = {{Shaft speed ripples in wind turbines caused by tower shadow and wind shear}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1049/iet-rpg.2013.0008}},
  volume       = {{8}},
  year         = {{2014}},
}

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