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Androstadienetrione, a boldenone-like component, detected in cattle faeces with GC-MSn and LC-MSn

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Abstract
Boldenone (1,4-androstadiene-17-ol-3-one, Bol) has been the subject of a heated debate because of ongoing confusion about its endogenous or exogenous origin when detected in one of its forms in faecal or urine samples from cattle. An expert report was recently written on the presence and metabolism of Bol in various animal species. Androstadienedione (ADD) is a direct precursor of 17 beta-boldenone (beta Bol). It is a 3,17-dione; beta Bol is a 17-ol-3-one. Not much is published on 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-diol, which is a 3,17-diol (ADL). If animals were exposed for a longer period to one of these analytes, a metabolic pathway would be initiated to eliminate these compounds. Similar to recent testosterone metabolism studies in the aquatic invertebrate Neomysis integer, ADD, beta Bol and ADL could also be eliminated as hydroxymetabolites after exposure. The presence of 1-keto-steroids or 11-hydroxy-metabolites in faecal samples can interfere with a confirmation method by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS), after oxidation of corticosteroids with a double bond in the A-ring (e. g. prednisolone or its metabolite prednisone). The presence of androstadienetrione (ADT) in faecal samples of cattle has never been reported. The origin of its presence can be explained through different pathways, which are presented in this paper.
Keywords
OXIDATION, prednisolone, PREDNISOLONE, METABOLISM, LC-MSn, GC-MSn, androstadienetrione, boldenone, androstadienedione, metabolite, corticosteroid

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Chicago
Poelmans, Sofie, Katia De Wasch, Herlinde Noppe, Nathalie Van Hoof, M Van de Wiele, D Courtheyn, W Gillis, Piet Vanthemsche, Colin Janssen, and Hubert De Brabander. 2005. “Androstadienetrione, a Boldenone-like Component, Detected in Cattle Faeces with GC-MSn and LC-MSn.” Food Additives and Contaminants 22 (9): 798–807.
APA
Poelmans, Sofie, De Wasch, K., Noppe, H., Van Hoof, N., Van de Wiele, M., Courtheyn, D., Gillis, W., et al. (2005). Androstadienetrione, a boldenone-like component, detected in cattle faeces with GC-MSn and LC-MSn. FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS, 22(9), 798–807.
Vancouver
1.
Poelmans S, De Wasch K, Noppe H, Van Hoof N, Van de Wiele M, Courtheyn D, et al. Androstadienetrione, a boldenone-like component, detected in cattle faeces with GC-MSn and LC-MSn. FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS. 2005;22(9):798–807.
MLA
Poelmans, Sofie, Katia De Wasch, Herlinde Noppe, et al. “Androstadienetrione, a Boldenone-like Component, Detected in Cattle Faeces with GC-MSn and LC-MSn.” FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS 22.9 (2005): 798–807. Print.
@article{322089,
  abstract     = {Boldenone (1,4-androstadiene-17-ol-3-one, Bol) has been the subject of a heated debate because of ongoing confusion about its endogenous or exogenous origin when detected in one of its forms in faecal or urine samples from cattle. An expert report was recently written on the presence and metabolism of Bol in various animal species. Androstadienedione (ADD) is a direct precursor of 17 beta-boldenone (beta Bol). It is a 3,17-dione; beta Bol is a 17-ol-3-one. Not much is published on 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-diol, which is a 3,17-diol (ADL). If animals were exposed for a longer period to one of these analytes, a metabolic pathway would be initiated to eliminate these compounds. Similar to recent testosterone metabolism studies in the aquatic invertebrate Neomysis integer, ADD, beta Bol and ADL could also be eliminated as hydroxymetabolites after exposure. The presence of 1-keto-steroids or 11-hydroxy-metabolites in faecal samples can interfere with a confirmation method by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS), after oxidation of corticosteroids with a double bond in the A-ring (e. g. prednisolone or its metabolite prednisone). The presence of androstadienetrione (ADT) in faecal samples of cattle has never been reported. The origin of its presence can be explained through different pathways, which are presented in this paper.},
  author       = {Poelmans, Sofie and De Wasch, Katia and Noppe, Herlinde and Van Hoof, Nathalie and Van de Wiele, M and Courtheyn, D and Gillis, W and Vanthemsche, Piet and Janssen, Colin and De Brabander, Hubert},
  issn         = {0265-203X},
  journal      = {FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS},
  keyword      = {OXIDATION,prednisolone,PREDNISOLONE,METABOLISM,LC-MSn,GC-MSn,androstadienetrione,boldenone,androstadienedione,metabolite,corticosteroid},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {798--807},
  title        = {Androstadienetrione, a boldenone-like component, detected in cattle faeces with GC-MSn and LC-MSn},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030500239508},
  volume       = {22},
  year         = {2005},
}

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