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Leukocyte infiltration and tumor cell plasticity are parameters of aggressiveness in primary cutaneous melanoma

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Abstract
Various clinical and experimental observations detected an immunological host defense in cutaneous melanoma. In order to investigate the prognostic value of leukocyte effector mechanisms, we examined the presence of different subsets of leukocytes in tumor samples of 58 patients diagnosed with primary cutaneous melanoma. The presence of T lymphocytes, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, CD16+ cells and macrophages was correlated to Breslow depth. A significantly higher amount of several subsets of leukocytes was found in samples with a more progressed tumor stage and survival analysis demonstrated that a higher amount of T lymphocytes and CD16+ cells was associated with a short survival. The amount of FOXP3+ regulatory T lymphocytes did not correlate with survival, nevertheless, it correlated with the amount of total infiltrate. In contrast, analysis of the expression of CD69, a marker for activated lymphocytes, demonstrated that patients with a higher amount of CD69+ lymphocytes had a better survival. In addition, a new parameter for aggressiveness of melanoma, tumor cell plasticity [i.e., the presence of periodic acid Schiff's (PAS) reagent positive loops], also predicted short survival and a trend of a higher amount of tumor infiltrating leukocytes in tumors with PAS positive loops was observed. These findings demonstrate that leukocyte infiltration and the presence of PAS loops is a sign of tumor aggressiveness and may have prognostic value.
Keywords
MALIGNANT-MELANOMA, VERTICAL GROWTH-PHASE, METASTATIC MELANOMA, OVARIAN-CANCER, PROGNOSTIC-FACTOR, B-CELLS, VASCULOGENIC MIMICRY, COLORECTAL-CANCER, TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR FOXP3, angiogenesis, tumor cell plasticity, activation status of lymphocytes, prognosis, immunosuppression, tumor infiltrating leukocytes, REGULATORY T-CELLS, cutaneous melanoma

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Chicago
Hillen, Femke, Coen IM Baeten, Anouk van de Winkel, David Creytens, Daisy WJ van der Schaft, Veronique Winnepenninckx, and Arjan W Griffioen. 2008. “Leukocyte Infiltration and Tumor Cell Plasticity Are Parameters of Aggressiveness in Primary Cutaneous Melanoma.” Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy 57 (1): 97–106.
APA
Hillen, F., Baeten, C. I., van de Winkel, A., Creytens, D., van der Schaft, D. W., Winnepenninckx, V., & Griffioen, A. W. (2008). Leukocyte infiltration and tumor cell plasticity are parameters of aggressiveness in primary cutaneous melanoma. CANCER IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOTHERAPY, 57(1), 97–106.
Vancouver
1.
Hillen F, Baeten CI, van de Winkel A, Creytens D, van der Schaft DW, Winnepenninckx V, et al. Leukocyte infiltration and tumor cell plasticity are parameters of aggressiveness in primary cutaneous melanoma. CANCER IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOTHERAPY. 2008;57(1):97–106.
MLA
Hillen, Femke, Coen IM Baeten, Anouk van de Winkel, et al. “Leukocyte Infiltration and Tumor Cell Plasticity Are Parameters of Aggressiveness in Primary Cutaneous Melanoma.” CANCER IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOTHERAPY 57.1 (2008): 97–106. Print.
@article{3218464,
  abstract     = {Various clinical and experimental observations detected an immunological host defense in cutaneous melanoma. In order to investigate the prognostic value of leukocyte effector mechanisms, we examined the presence of different subsets of leukocytes in tumor samples of 58 patients diagnosed with primary cutaneous melanoma. The presence of T lymphocytes, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, CD16+ cells and macrophages was correlated to Breslow depth. A significantly higher amount of several subsets of leukocytes was found in samples with a more progressed tumor stage and survival analysis demonstrated that a higher amount of T lymphocytes and CD16+ cells was associated with a short survival. The amount of FOXP3+ regulatory T lymphocytes did not correlate with survival, nevertheless, it correlated with the amount of total infiltrate. In contrast, analysis of the expression of CD69, a marker for activated lymphocytes, demonstrated that patients with a higher amount of CD69+ lymphocytes had a better survival. In addition, a new parameter for aggressiveness of melanoma, tumor cell plasticity [i.e., the presence of periodic acid Schiff's (PAS) reagent positive loops], also predicted short survival and a trend of a higher amount of tumor infiltrating leukocytes in tumors with PAS positive loops was observed. These findings demonstrate that leukocyte infiltration and the presence of PAS loops is a sign of tumor aggressiveness and may have prognostic value.},
  author       = {Hillen, Femke and Baeten, Coen IM and van de Winkel, Anouk and Creytens, David and van der Schaft, Daisy WJ and Winnepenninckx, Veronique and Griffioen, Arjan W},
  issn         = {0340-7004},
  journal      = {CANCER IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOTHERAPY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {97--106},
  title        = {Leukocyte infiltration and tumor cell plasticity are parameters of aggressiveness in primary cutaneous melanoma},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-007-0353-9},
  volume       = {57},
  year         = {2008},
}

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