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Meal and beta-alanine co-ingestion enhances muscle carnosine loading

Sanne Stegen (UGent) , Laura Blancquaert (UGent) , Inge Everaert (UGent) , Tine Bex (UGent) , Youri Taes (UGent) , Patrick Calders (UGent) , Eric Achten (UGent) and Wim Derave (UGent)
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Abstract
INTRODUCTION:Beta-alanine (BA) is a popular ergogenic supplement as it can induce muscle carnosine loading. We hypothesize that, by analogy with creatine supplementation, 1) an inverse relationship between urinary excretion and muscle loading is present, and 2) the latter is stimulated by carbohydrate-and protein-induced insulin action. METHODS: In study A, the effect of 5 weeks slow-release BA (SRBA) supplementation (4.8g/day) on whole body BA retention was determined in 7 men. We further determined whether co-ingestion of carbohydrates and proteins with SRBA would improve retention. In study B (34 subjects), we explored the effect of meal-timing on muscle carnosine loading (3.2g/day during 6-7 weeks). One group received pure BA (PBA) in between the meals, the other received PBA at start of the meals, in order to explore the effect of meal-induced insulin release. Further, we compared with a third group receiving SRBA at start of the meals. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Orally ingested SRBA has a very high whole body retention (97-98%), that is not declining throughout the 5 weeks supplementation period, nor is it influenced by co-ingestion of macronutrients. Thus, a very small portion (1-2%) is lost through urinary excretion, and equally only a small portion is incorporated into muscle carnosine (~3%), indicating that the majority of ingested BA is metabolized (possibly through oxidation). Secondly, in soleus muscles, the efficiency of carnosine loading is significantly higher when PBA is co-ingested with a meal (+64%), compared to in between the meals (+41%), suggesting that insulin stimulates muscle carnosine loading. Finally, chronic supplementation of SRBA versus PBA seem equally effective.
Keywords
beta-alanine retention, ergogenic supplements, carnosine synthase, BETA-ALANINE METABOLIZATION, SKELETAL-MUSCLE, CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION, INSULIN, HUMANS, METABOLISM, RETENTION, CAPACITY, AMINOTRANSFERASE, ACCUMULATION, EXPRESSION

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Chicago
Stegen, Sanne, Laura Blancquaert, Inge Everaert, Tine Bex, Youri Taes, Patrick Calders, Eric Achten, and Wim Derave. 2013. “Meal and Beta-alanine Co-ingestion Enhances Muscle Carnosine Loading.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 45 (8): 1478–1485.
APA
Stegen, S., Blancquaert, L., Everaert, I., Bex, T., Taes, Y., Calders, P., Achten, E., et al. (2013). Meal and beta-alanine co-ingestion enhances muscle carnosine loading. MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, 45(8), 1478–1485.
Vancouver
1.
Stegen S, Blancquaert L, Everaert I, Bex T, Taes Y, Calders P, et al. Meal and beta-alanine co-ingestion enhances muscle carnosine loading. MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE. 2013;45(8):1478–85.
MLA
Stegen, Sanne, Laura Blancquaert, Inge Everaert, et al. “Meal and Beta-alanine Co-ingestion Enhances Muscle Carnosine Loading.” MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE 45.8 (2013): 1478–1485. Print.
@article{3213791,
  abstract     = {INTRODUCTION:Beta-alanine (BA) is a popular ergogenic supplement as it can induce muscle carnosine loading. We hypothesize that, by analogy with creatine supplementation, 1) an inverse relationship between urinary excretion and muscle loading is present, and 2) the latter is stimulated by carbohydrate-and protein-induced insulin action.
METHODS: In study A, the effect of 5 weeks slow-release BA (SRBA) supplementation (4.8g/day) on whole body BA retention was determined in 7 men. We further determined whether co-ingestion of carbohydrates and proteins with SRBA would improve retention. In study B (34 subjects), we explored the effect of meal-timing on muscle carnosine loading (3.2g/day during 6-7 weeks). One group received pure BA (PBA) in between the meals, the other received PBA at start of the meals, in order to explore the effect of meal-induced insulin release. Further, we compared with a third group receiving SRBA at start of the meals.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Orally ingested SRBA has a very high whole body retention (97-98\%), that is not declining throughout the 5 weeks supplementation period, nor is it influenced by co-ingestion of macronutrients. Thus, a very small portion (1-2\%) is lost through urinary excretion, and equally only a small portion is incorporated into muscle carnosine ({\texttildelow}3\%), indicating that the majority of ingested BA is metabolized (possibly through oxidation). Secondly, in soleus muscles, the efficiency of carnosine loading is significantly higher when PBA is co-ingested with a meal (+64\%), compared to in between the meals (+41\%), suggesting that insulin stimulates muscle carnosine loading. Finally, chronic supplementation of SRBA versus PBA seem equally effective.},
  author       = {Stegen, Sanne and Blancquaert, Laura and Everaert, Inge and Bex, Tine and Taes, Youri and Calders, Patrick and Achten, Eric and Derave, Wim},
  issn         = {0195-9131},
  journal      = {MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {1478--1485},
  title        = {Meal and beta-alanine co-ingestion enhances muscle carnosine loading},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31828ab073},
  volume       = {45},
  year         = {2013},
}

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