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Prediction of musical affect using a combination of acoustic structural cues

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Abstract
This study explores whether musical affect attribution can be predicted by a linear combination of acoustical structural cues. To that aim, a database of sixty musical audio excerpts was compiled and analyzed at three levels: judgments of affective content by subjects; judgments of structural content by musicological experts (i.e., "manual structural cues"), and extraction of structural content by an auditory-based computer algorithm (called: acoustical structural cues). In Study 1, an affect space was constructed with Valence (gay-sad), Activity (tender-bold) and Interest (exciting-boring) as the main dimensions, using the responses of a hundred subjects. In Study 11 manual and acoustical structural cues were analyzed and compared. Manual structural cues such as loudness and articulation could be accounted for in terms of a combination of acoustical structural cues. In Study 111, the subjective responses of eight individual subjects were analyzed using the affect space obtained in Study 1, and modeled in terms of the structural cues obtained in Study 11, using linear regression modeling. This worked better for the Activity dimension than for the Valence dimension, while the Interest dimension could not be accounted for. Overall, manual structural cues worked better than acoustical structural cues. In a final assessment study, a selected set of acoustical structural cues was used for building prediction models. The results indicate that musical affect attribution can partly be predicted using a combination of acoustical structural cues. Future research may focus on non-linear approaches, elaboration of dataset and subjects, and refinement of acoustical structural cue extraction.
Keywords
MODEL, EMOTIONS, BRAIN, TEMPO, PERCEPTION, EXPRESSION, ROUGHNESS, RESPONSES, SYSTEMS

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Chicago
Leman, Marc, Valery Vermeulen, Liesbeth De Voogdt, Dirk Moelants, and Micheline Lesaffre. 2005. “Prediction of Musical Affect Using a Combination of Acoustic Structural Cues.” Journal of New Music Research 34 (1): 39–67.
APA
Leman, M., Vermeulen, V., De Voogdt, L., Moelants, D., & Lesaffre, M. (2005). Prediction of musical affect using a combination of acoustic structural cues. JOURNAL OF NEW MUSIC RESEARCH, 34(1), 39–67.
Vancouver
1.
Leman M, Vermeulen V, De Voogdt L, Moelants D, Lesaffre M. Prediction of musical affect using a combination of acoustic structural cues. JOURNAL OF NEW MUSIC RESEARCH. 2005;34(1):39–67.
MLA
Leman, Marc, Valery Vermeulen, Liesbeth De Voogdt, et al. “Prediction of Musical Affect Using a Combination of Acoustic Structural Cues.” JOURNAL OF NEW MUSIC RESEARCH 34.1 (2005): 39–67. Print.
@article{320495,
  abstract     = {This study explores whether musical affect attribution can be predicted by a linear combination of acoustical structural cues. To that aim, a database of sixty musical audio excerpts was compiled and analyzed at three levels: judgments of affective content by subjects; judgments of structural content by musicological experts (i.e., {\textacutedbl}manual structural cues{\textacutedbl}), and extraction of structural content by an auditory-based computer algorithm (called: acoustical structural cues). In Study 1, an affect space was constructed with Valence (gay-sad), Activity (tender-bold) and Interest (exciting-boring) as the main dimensions, using the responses of a hundred subjects. In Study 11 manual and acoustical structural cues were analyzed and compared. Manual structural cues such as loudness and articulation could be accounted for in terms of a combination of acoustical structural cues. In Study 111, the subjective responses of eight individual subjects were analyzed using the affect space obtained in Study 1, and modeled in terms of the structural cues obtained in Study 11, using linear regression modeling. This worked better for the Activity dimension than for the Valence dimension, while the Interest dimension could not be accounted for. Overall, manual structural cues worked better than acoustical structural cues. In a final assessment study, a selected set of acoustical structural cues was used for building prediction models. The results indicate that musical affect attribution can partly be predicted using a combination of acoustical structural cues. Future research may focus on non-linear approaches, elaboration of dataset and subjects, and refinement of acoustical structural cue extraction.},
  author       = {Leman, Marc and Vermeulen, Valery and De Voogdt, Liesbeth and Moelants, Dirk and Lesaffre, Micheline},
  issn         = {0929-8215},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF NEW MUSIC RESEARCH},
  keyword      = {MODEL,EMOTIONS,BRAIN,TEMPO,PERCEPTION,EXPRESSION,ROUGHNESS,RESPONSES,SYSTEMS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {39--67},
  title        = {Prediction of musical affect using a combination of acoustic structural cues},
  volume       = {34},
  year         = {2005},
}

Web of Science
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