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A new heterotrophic dinoflagellate from the North-eastern Pacific, Protoperidinium fukuyoi: cyst–theca relationship, phylogeny, distribution and ecology

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Abstract
The cyst-theca relationship of Protoperidinium fukuyoi n. sp. (Dinoflagellata, Protoperidiniaceae) is established by incubating resting cysts from estuarine sediments off southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, and San Pedro Harbor, California, USA. The cysts have a brown-coloured wall, and are characterized by a saphopylic archeopyle comprising three apical plates, the apical pore plate and canal plate; and acuminate processes typically arranged in linear clusters. We elucidate the phylogenetic relationship of P. fukuyoi through large and small subunit (LSU and SSU) rDNA sequences, and also report the SSU of the cyst-defined species Islandinium minutum (Harland & Reid) Head etal. 2001. Molecular phylogenetic analysis by SSU rDNA shows that both species are closely related to Protoperidinium americanum (Gran & Braarud 1935) Balech 1974. Large subunit rDNA phylogeny also supports a close relationship between P. fukuyoi and P. americanum. Three subgroups in total are further characterized within the Monovela group. The cyst of P. fukuyoi shows a wide geographical range along the coastal tropical to temperate areas of the North-east Pacific, its distribution reflecting optimal summer sea-surface temperatures of similar to 14-18 degrees C and salinities of 22-34psu.
Keywords
round spiny brown cyst, LSU rDNA, Saanich Inlet, San Pedro Harbor, single-cell PCR, SSU rDNA, Strait of Georgia, SP-NOV DINOPHYCEAE, NEW-ENGLAND USA, MINUTUM DINOPHYCEAE, SURFACE SEDIMENTS, PROCESS LENGTH, SEA, PERIDINIALES, SALINITY, ULTRASTRUCTURE, PRODUCTIVITY

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Citation

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Chicago
Mertens, Kenneth, Aika Yamaguchi, Yoshihito Takano, Vera Pospelova, Martin Head, Taoufik Radi, Anna Pieńkowski, Anne de Vernal, Hisae Kawami, and Kazumi Matsuoka. 2013. “A New Heterotrophic Dinoflagellate from the North-eastern Pacific, Protoperidinium Fukuyoi: Cyst–theca Relationship, Phylogeny, Distribution and Ecology.” Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 60 (6): 545–563.
APA
Mertens, Kenneth, Yamaguchi, A., Takano, Y., Pospelova, V., Head, M., Radi, T., Pieńkowski, A., et al. (2013). A new heterotrophic dinoflagellate from the North-eastern Pacific, Protoperidinium fukuyoi: cyst–theca relationship, phylogeny, distribution and ecology. JOURNAL OF EUKARYOTIC MICROBIOLOGY, 60(6), 545–563.
Vancouver
1.
Mertens K, Yamaguchi A, Takano Y, Pospelova V, Head M, Radi T, et al. A new heterotrophic dinoflagellate from the North-eastern Pacific, Protoperidinium fukuyoi: cyst–theca relationship, phylogeny, distribution and ecology. JOURNAL OF EUKARYOTIC MICROBIOLOGY. 2013;60(6):545–63.
MLA
Mertens, Kenneth, Aika Yamaguchi, Yoshihito Takano, et al. “A New Heterotrophic Dinoflagellate from the North-eastern Pacific, Protoperidinium Fukuyoi: Cyst–theca Relationship, Phylogeny, Distribution and Ecology.” JOURNAL OF EUKARYOTIC MICROBIOLOGY 60.6 (2013): 545–563. Print.
@article{3198806,
  abstract     = {The cyst-theca relationship of Protoperidinium fukuyoi n. sp. (Dinoflagellata, Protoperidiniaceae) is established by incubating resting cysts from estuarine sediments off southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, and San Pedro Harbor, California, USA. The cysts have a brown-coloured wall, and are characterized by a saphopylic archeopyle comprising three apical plates, the apical pore plate and canal plate; and acuminate processes typically arranged in linear clusters. We elucidate the phylogenetic relationship of P. fukuyoi through large and small subunit (LSU and SSU) rDNA sequences, and also report the SSU of the cyst-defined species Islandinium minutum (Harland \& Reid) Head etal. 2001. Molecular phylogenetic analysis by SSU rDNA shows that both species are closely related to Protoperidinium americanum (Gran \& Braarud 1935) Balech 1974. Large subunit rDNA phylogeny also supports a close relationship between P. fukuyoi and P. americanum. Three subgroups in total are further characterized within the Monovela group. The cyst of P. fukuyoi shows a wide geographical range along the coastal tropical to temperate areas of the North-east Pacific, its distribution reflecting optimal summer sea-surface temperatures of similar to 14-18 degrees C and salinities of 22-34psu.},
  author       = {Mertens, Kenneth and Yamaguchi, Aika and Takano, Yoshihito and Pospelova, Vera and Head, Martin and Radi, Taoufik and Pie\'{n}kowski, Anna and de Vernal, Anne and Kawami, Hisae and Matsuoka, Kazumi},
  issn         = {1066-5234},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF EUKARYOTIC MICROBIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {round spiny brown cyst,LSU rDNA,Saanich Inlet,San Pedro Harbor,single-cell PCR,SSU rDNA,Strait of Georgia,SP-NOV DINOPHYCEAE,NEW-ENGLAND USA,MINUTUM DINOPHYCEAE,SURFACE SEDIMENTS,PROCESS LENGTH,SEA,PERIDINIALES,SALINITY,ULTRASTRUCTURE,PRODUCTIVITY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {545--563},
  title        = {A new heterotrophic dinoflagellate from the North-eastern Pacific, Protoperidinium fukuyoi: cyst--theca relationship, phylogeny, distribution and ecology},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jeu.12058},
  volume       = {60},
  year         = {2013},
}

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