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Adventitious root induction in Arabidopsis thaliana as a model for in vitro root organogenesis

Inge Verstraeten (UGent) , Tom Beeckman (UGent) and Danny Geelen (UGent)
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Abstract
Adventitious root formation, the development of roots on non-root tissue (e.g. leaves, hypocotyls and stems) is a critical step during micropropagation. Although root induction treatments are routinely used for a large number of species micropropagated in vitro as well as for in vivo cuttings, the mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting are still poorly understood. Researchers attempt to gain better insight into the molecular aspects by studying adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana. The existing assay involves etiolation of seedlings and measurements of de novo formed roots on the elongated hypocotyl. The etiolated hypocotyls express a novel auxin-controlled signal transduction pathway in which auxin response factors (ARFs), microRNAs and environmental conditions that drive adventitious rooting are integrated. An alternative assay makes use of so-called thin cell layers (TCL), excised strips of cells from the inflorescence stem of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, both the etiolated seedling system and the TCL assay are only distantly related to industrial rooting processes in which roots are induced on adult stem tissue. Here, we describe an adventitious root induction system that uses segments of the inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana, which have a histological structure similar to cuttings or in vitro micropropagated shoots. The system allows multiple treatments with chemicals as well as the evaluation of different environmental conditions on a large number of explants. It is therefore suitable for high throughput chemical screenings and experiments that require numerous data points for statistical analysis. Using this assay, the adventitious root induction capacity of classical auxins was evaluated and a differential response to the different auxins could be demonstrated. NAA, IBA and IAA stimulated adventitious rooting on the stem segment, whereas 2,4-D and picloram did not. Light conditions profoundly influenced the root induction capacity of the auxins. Additionally to the environmental control of adventitious root formation, we also investigated the spatial and temporal aspects of stem-based adventitious root organogenesis. To determine the cells involved in de novo root initiation on the adult stems, we adopted scanning electron microscopy, which allows the visualization of the auxin responsive stem tissue. Using this technique, direct (without callus interface) and indirect (with intermediate callus phase) organogenesis was readily distinguished. The described micro-stem segment system is also suitable for other non-woody species and it is a valuable tool to perform fast evaluations of different treatments to study adventitious root induction.

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MLA
Verstraeten, Inge, Tom Beeckman, and Danny Geelen. “Adventitious Root Induction in Arabidopsis Thaliana as a Model for in Vitro Root Organogenesis.” Plant Organogenesis : Methods and Protocols. Ed. Ive De Smet. Vol. 959. New York, NY, USA: Humana Press, 2013. 159–175. Print.
APA
Verstraeten, I., Beeckman, T., & Geelen, D. (2013). Adventitious root induction in Arabidopsis thaliana as a model for in vitro root organogenesis. In Ive De Smet (Ed.), Plant organogenesis : methods and protocols (Vol. 959, pp. 159–175). New York, NY, USA: Humana Press.
Chicago author-date
Verstraeten, Inge, Tom Beeckman, and Danny Geelen. 2013. “Adventitious Root Induction in Arabidopsis Thaliana as a Model for in Vitro Root Organogenesis.” In Plant Organogenesis : Methods and Protocols, ed. Ive De Smet, 959:159–175. New York, NY, USA: Humana Press.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Verstraeten, Inge, Tom Beeckman, and Danny Geelen. 2013. “Adventitious Root Induction in Arabidopsis Thaliana as a Model for in Vitro Root Organogenesis.” In Plant Organogenesis : Methods and Protocols, ed. Ive De Smet, 959:159–175. New York, NY, USA: Humana Press.
Vancouver
1.
Verstraeten I, Beeckman T, Geelen D. Adventitious root induction in Arabidopsis thaliana as a model for in vitro root organogenesis. In: De Smet I, editor. Plant organogenesis : methods and protocols. New York, NY, USA: Humana Press; 2013. p. 159–75.
IEEE
[1]
I. Verstraeten, T. Beeckman, and D. Geelen, “Adventitious root induction in Arabidopsis thaliana as a model for in vitro root organogenesis,” in Plant organogenesis : methods and protocols, vol. 959, I. De Smet, Ed. New York, NY, USA: Humana Press, 2013, pp. 159–175.
@incollection{3194120,
  abstract     = {Adventitious root formation, the development of roots on non-root tissue (e.g. leaves, hypocotyls and stems) is a critical step during micropropagation. Although root induction treatments are routinely used for a large number of species micropropagated in vitro as well as for in vivo cuttings, the mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting are still poorly understood. Researchers attempt to gain better insight into the molecular aspects by studying adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana. The existing assay involves etiolation of seedlings and measurements of de novo formed roots on the elongated hypocotyl. The etiolated hypocotyls express a novel auxin-controlled signal transduction pathway in which auxin response factors (ARFs), microRNAs and environmental conditions that drive adventitious rooting are integrated. An alternative assay makes use of so-called thin cell layers (TCL), excised strips of cells from the inflorescence stem of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, both the etiolated seedling system and the TCL assay are only distantly related to industrial rooting processes in which roots are induced on adult stem tissue. Here, we describe an adventitious root induction system that uses segments of the inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana, which have a histological structure similar to cuttings or in vitro micropropagated shoots. The system allows multiple treatments with chemicals as well as the evaluation of different environmental conditions on a large number of explants. It is therefore suitable for high throughput chemical screenings and experiments that require numerous data points for statistical analysis. Using this assay, the adventitious root induction capacity of classical auxins was evaluated and a differential response to the different auxins could be demonstrated. NAA, IBA and IAA stimulated adventitious rooting on the stem segment, whereas 2,4-D and picloram did not. Light conditions profoundly influenced the root induction capacity of the auxins. Additionally to the environmental control of adventitious root formation, we also investigated the spatial and temporal aspects of stem-based adventitious root organogenesis. To determine the cells involved in de novo root initiation on the adult stems, we adopted scanning electron microscopy, which allows the visualization of the auxin responsive stem tissue. Using this technique, direct (without callus interface) and indirect (with intermediate callus phase) organogenesis was readily distinguished. The described micro-stem segment system is also suitable for other non-woody species and it is a valuable tool to perform fast evaluations of different treatments to study adventitious root induction.},
  author       = {Verstraeten, Inge and Beeckman, Tom and Geelen, Danny},
  booktitle    = {Plant organogenesis : methods and protocols},
  editor       = {De Smet, Ive},
  isbn         = {9781627032209},
  issn         = {1064-3745},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {159--175},
  publisher    = {Humana Press},
  series       = {Methods in Molecular Biology},
  title        = {Adventitious root induction in Arabidopsis thaliana as a model for in vitro root organogenesis},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-62703-221-6_10},
  volume       = {959},
  year         = {2013},
}

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