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Physicochemical quality and chemical safety of chlorine as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant for fresh-cut lettuce washing

Sam Van Haute (UGent) , Imca Sampers (UGent) , Kevin Holvoet (UGent) and Mieke Uyttendaele (UGent)
Author
Organization
Project
VEG-I-TRADE (Impact of climate change and globalisation on safety of fresh produce – governing a supply chain of uncompromised food sovereignty)
Abstract
Chlorine was assessed as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant in the fresh-cut produce industry. Artificial fresh-cut lettuce wash water, made from butterhead lettuce, was used for the experiments. In the reconditioning experiments, chlorine was added to artificial wash water inoculated with Escherichia coli O157 (6 log CFU/ml). Regression models were constructed based on the inactivation data and validated in actual wash water from leafy vegetable processing companies. The model that incorporated chlorine dose and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wash water accurately predicted inactivation. Listeria monocytogenes was more resistant to chlorine reconditioning in artificial wash water than Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. During the washing process with inoculated lettuce (4 log CFU/g), in the absence of chlorine, there was a rapid microbial buildup in the water that accumulated to 5.4 +/- 0.4 log CFU/100 ml after 1 h. When maintaining a residual concentration of 1 mg/liter free chlorine, wash water contamination was maintained below 2.7, 2.5, and 2.5 log CFU/100 ml for tap water and artificial process water with COD values of 500 and 1,000 mg O-2/liter, respectively. A model was developed to predict water contamination during the dynamic washing process. Only minor amounts of total trihalomethanes were formed in the water during reconditioning. Total trihalomethanes accumulated to larger amounts in the water during the wash water disinfection experiments and reached 124.5 +/- 13.4 mu g/liter after 1 h of execution of the washing process in water with a COD of 1,000 mg O-2/liter. However, no total trihalomethanes were found on the fresh-cut lettuce after rinsing.
Keywords
NATURAL ORGANIC-MATTER, ESCHERICHIA-COLI O157-H7, BY-PRODUCT FORMATION, CRYPTOSPORIDIUM-PARVUM, LISTERIA-MONOCYTOGENES, CROSS-CONTAMINATION, ACIDIC ELECTROLYZED WATER, SODIUM-HYPOCHLORITE, SALMONELLA-ENTERICA, AQUEOUS CHLORINE

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Van Haute, Sam, Imca Sampers, Kevin Holvoet, et al. “Physicochemical Quality and Chemical Safety of Chlorine as a Reconditioning Agent and Wash Water Disinfectant for Fresh-cut Lettuce Washing.” APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 79.9 (2013): 2850–2861. Print.
APA
Van Haute, Sam, Sampers, I., Holvoet, K., & Uyttendaele, M. (2013). Physicochemical quality and chemical safety of chlorine as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant for fresh-cut lettuce washing. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 79(9), 2850–2861.
Chicago author-date
Van Haute, Sam, Imca Sampers, Kevin Holvoet, and Mieke Uyttendaele. 2013. “Physicochemical Quality and Chemical Safety of Chlorine as a Reconditioning Agent and Wash Water Disinfectant for Fresh-cut Lettuce Washing.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 79 (9): 2850–2861.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van Haute, Sam, Imca Sampers, Kevin Holvoet, and Mieke Uyttendaele. 2013. “Physicochemical Quality and Chemical Safety of Chlorine as a Reconditioning Agent and Wash Water Disinfectant for Fresh-cut Lettuce Washing.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 79 (9): 2850–2861.
Vancouver
1.
Van Haute S, Sampers I, Holvoet K, Uyttendaele M. Physicochemical quality and chemical safety of chlorine as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant for fresh-cut lettuce washing. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY. 2013;79(9):2850–61.
IEEE
[1]
S. Van Haute, I. Sampers, K. Holvoet, and M. Uyttendaele, “Physicochemical quality and chemical safety of chlorine as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant for fresh-cut lettuce washing,” APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, vol. 79, no. 9, pp. 2850–2861, 2013.
@article{3192077,
  abstract     = {Chlorine was assessed as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant in the fresh-cut produce industry. Artificial fresh-cut lettuce wash water, made from butterhead lettuce, was used for the experiments. In the reconditioning experiments, chlorine was added to artificial wash water inoculated with Escherichia coli O157 (6 log CFU/ml). Regression models were constructed based on the inactivation data and validated in actual wash water from leafy vegetable processing companies. The model that incorporated chlorine dose and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wash water accurately predicted inactivation. Listeria monocytogenes was more resistant to chlorine reconditioning in artificial wash water than Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. During the washing process with inoculated lettuce (4 log CFU/g), in the absence of chlorine, there was a rapid microbial buildup in the water that accumulated to 5.4 +/- 0.4 log CFU/100 ml after 1 h. When maintaining a residual concentration of 1 mg/liter free chlorine, wash water contamination was maintained below 2.7, 2.5, and 2.5 log CFU/100 ml for tap water and artificial process water with COD values of 500 and 1,000 mg O-2/liter, respectively. A model was developed to predict water contamination during the dynamic washing process. Only minor amounts of total trihalomethanes were formed in the water during reconditioning. Total trihalomethanes accumulated to larger amounts in the water during the wash water disinfection experiments and reached 124.5 +/- 13.4 mu g/liter after 1 h of execution of the washing process in water with a COD of 1,000 mg O-2/liter. However, no total trihalomethanes were found on the fresh-cut lettuce after rinsing.},
  author       = {Van Haute, Sam and Sampers, Imca and Holvoet, Kevin and Uyttendaele, Mieke},
  issn         = {0099-2240},
  journal      = {APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {NATURAL ORGANIC-MATTER,ESCHERICHIA-COLI O157-H7,BY-PRODUCT FORMATION,CRYPTOSPORIDIUM-PARVUM,LISTERIA-MONOCYTOGENES,CROSS-CONTAMINATION,ACIDIC ELECTROLYZED WATER,SODIUM-HYPOCHLORITE,SALMONELLA-ENTERICA,AQUEOUS CHLORINE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {2850--2861},
  title        = {Physicochemical quality and chemical safety of chlorine as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant for fresh-cut lettuce washing},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03283-12},
  volume       = {79},
  year         = {2013},
}

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