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Asymmetric gibberellin signaling regulates vacuolar trafficking of PIN auxin transporters during root gravitropism

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Abstract
Gravitropic bending of plant organs is mediated by an asymmetric signaling of the plant hormone auxin between the upper and lower side of the respective organ. Here, we show that also another plant hormone, gibberellie acid (GA), shows asymmetric action during gravitropic responses. lmmunodetection using an antibody against GA and monitoring GA signaling output by downstream degradation of DELLA proteins revealed an asymmetric GA distribution and response with the maximum at the lower side of gravistimulated roots. Genetic or pharmacological manipulation of GA levels or response affects gravity-mediated auxin redistribution and root bending response. The higher GA levels at the lower side of the root correlate with increased amounts of PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) auxin transporter at the plasma membrane. The observed increase in PIN2 stability is caused by a specific GA effect on trafficking of PIN proteins to lytic vacuoles that presumably occurs downstream of brefeldin A-sensitive endosomes. Our results suggest that asymmetric auxin distribution instructive for gravity-induced differential growth is consolidated by the asymmetric action of GA that stabilizes the PIN-dependent auxin stream along the lower side of gravistimulated roots.
Keywords
GENE-EXPRESSION, PROTEIN LOCALIZATION, EFFLUX CARRIER, GROWTH, CELLS, BIOSYNTHESIS, protein stability, protein trafficking, hormone cross-talk, ARABIDOPSIS GA1 LOCUS, THALIANA, PLANTS, POLARIZATION

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MLA
Löfke, Christian, Marta Zwiewka, Ingo Heilmann, et al. “Asymmetric Gibberellin Signaling Regulates Vacuolar Trafficking of PIN Auxin Transporters During Root Gravitropism.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 110.9 (2013): 3627–3632. Print.
APA
Löfke, C., Zwiewka, M., Heilmann, I., Van Montagu, M., Teichmann, T., & Friml, J. (2013). Asymmetric gibberellin signaling regulates vacuolar trafficking of PIN auxin transporters during root gravitropism. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 110(9), 3627–3632.
Chicago author-date
Löfke, Christian, Marta Zwiewka, Ingo Heilmann, Marc Van Montagu, Thomas Teichmann, and Jiri Friml. 2013. “Asymmetric Gibberellin Signaling Regulates Vacuolar Trafficking of PIN Auxin Transporters During Root Gravitropism.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 (9): 3627–3632.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Löfke, Christian, Marta Zwiewka, Ingo Heilmann, Marc Van Montagu, Thomas Teichmann, and Jiri Friml. 2013. “Asymmetric Gibberellin Signaling Regulates Vacuolar Trafficking of PIN Auxin Transporters During Root Gravitropism.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 (9): 3627–3632.
Vancouver
1.
Löfke C, Zwiewka M, Heilmann I, Van Montagu M, Teichmann T, Friml J. Asymmetric gibberellin signaling regulates vacuolar trafficking of PIN auxin transporters during root gravitropism. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 2013;110(9):3627–32.
IEEE
[1]
C. Löfke, M. Zwiewka, I. Heilmann, M. Van Montagu, T. Teichmann, and J. Friml, “Asymmetric gibberellin signaling regulates vacuolar trafficking of PIN auxin transporters during root gravitropism,” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, vol. 110, no. 9, pp. 3627–3632, 2013.
@article{3188149,
  abstract     = {Gravitropic bending of plant organs is mediated by an asymmetric signaling of the plant hormone auxin between the upper and lower side of the respective organ. Here, we show that also another plant hormone, gibberellie acid (GA), shows asymmetric action during gravitropic responses. lmmunodetection using an antibody against GA and monitoring GA signaling output by downstream degradation of DELLA proteins revealed an asymmetric GA distribution and response with the maximum at the lower side of gravistimulated roots. Genetic or pharmacological manipulation of GA levels or response affects gravity-mediated auxin redistribution and root bending response. The higher GA levels at the lower side of the root correlate with increased amounts of PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) auxin transporter at the plasma membrane. The observed increase in PIN2 stability is caused by a specific GA effect on trafficking of PIN proteins to lytic vacuoles that presumably occurs downstream of brefeldin A-sensitive endosomes. Our results suggest that asymmetric auxin distribution instructive for gravity-induced differential growth is consolidated by the asymmetric action of GA that stabilizes the PIN-dependent auxin stream along the lower side of gravistimulated roots.},
  author       = {Löfke, Christian and Zwiewka, Marta and Heilmann, Ingo and Van Montagu, Marc and Teichmann, Thomas and Friml, Jiri},
  issn         = {0027-8424},
  journal      = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA},
  keywords     = {GENE-EXPRESSION,PROTEIN LOCALIZATION,EFFLUX CARRIER,GROWTH,CELLS,BIOSYNTHESIS,protein stability,protein trafficking,hormone cross-talk,ARABIDOPSIS GA1 LOCUS,THALIANA,PLANTS,POLARIZATION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {3627--3632},
  title        = {Asymmetric gibberellin signaling regulates vacuolar trafficking of PIN auxin transporters during root gravitropism},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1300107110},
  volume       = {110},
  year         = {2013},
}

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