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New early Eocene tapiromorph perissodactyls from the Ghazij Formation of Pakistan, with implications for mammalian biochronology in Asia

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Abstract
Early Eocene mammals from Indo-Pakistan have only recently come under study. Here we describe the first tapiromorph perissodactyls from the subcontinent. Gandheralophus minor n. gen. and n. sp. and G. robustus n. sp. are two species of Isectolophidae differing in size and in reduction of the anterior dentition. Gandheralophus is probably derived from a primitive isectolophid such as Orientolophus hengdongensis from the earliest Eocene of China, and may be part of a South Asian lineage that also contains Karagalax from the middle Eocene of Pakistan. Two specimens are referred to a new, unnamed species of Lophialetidae. Finally, a highly diagnostic M3 and a molar fragment are described as the new eomoropid chalicothere Litolophus ghazijensis sp. nov. The perissodactyls described here, in contrast to most other mammalian groups published from the early Eocene of Indo-Pakistan, are most closely related to forms known from East and Central Asia. Tapiromorpha are diverse and biochronologically important in the Eocene there and our results allow the first biochronological correlation between early Eocene mammal faunas in Indo-Pakistan and the rest of Asia. We suggest that the upper Ghazij Formation of Pakistan is best correlated with the middle or late part of the Bumbanian Asian Land-Mammal Age, while the Kuldana and Subathu Formations of Pakistan and India are best correlated with the Arshantan Asian Land-Mammal Age.
Keywords
biochronology, Eomoropidae, Lophialetidae, Isectolophidae, Perissodactyla, Ghazij Formation, Pakistan, early Eocene, MIDDLE EOCENE, WESTERN INDIA, ISECTOLOPHUS, SYSTEMATICS, ASSEMBLAGE, EVOLUTION, RADIATION, CHINA, BASIN

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Citation

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MLA
Missiaen, Pieter, and Philip D Gingerich. “New Early Eocene Tapiromorph Perissodactyls from the Ghazij Formation of Pakistan, with Implications for Mammalian Biochronology in Asia.” ACTA PALAEONTOLOGICA POLONICA 57.1 (2012): 21–34. Print.
APA
Missiaen, Pieter, & Gingerich, P. D. (2012). New early Eocene tapiromorph perissodactyls from the Ghazij Formation of Pakistan, with implications for mammalian biochronology in Asia. ACTA PALAEONTOLOGICA POLONICA, 57(1), 21–34.
Chicago author-date
Missiaen, Pieter, and Philip D Gingerich. 2012. “New Early Eocene Tapiromorph Perissodactyls from the Ghazij Formation of Pakistan, with Implications for Mammalian Biochronology in Asia.” Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 57 (1): 21–34.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Missiaen, Pieter, and Philip D Gingerich. 2012. “New Early Eocene Tapiromorph Perissodactyls from the Ghazij Formation of Pakistan, with Implications for Mammalian Biochronology in Asia.” Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 57 (1): 21–34.
Vancouver
1.
Missiaen P, Gingerich PD. New early Eocene tapiromorph perissodactyls from the Ghazij Formation of Pakistan, with implications for mammalian biochronology in Asia. ACTA PALAEONTOLOGICA POLONICA. 2012;57(1):21–34.
IEEE
[1]
P. Missiaen and P. D. Gingerich, “New early Eocene tapiromorph perissodactyls from the Ghazij Formation of Pakistan, with implications for mammalian biochronology in Asia,” ACTA PALAEONTOLOGICA POLONICA, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 21–34, 2012.
@article{3178691,
  abstract     = {Early Eocene mammals from Indo-Pakistan have only recently come under study. Here we describe the first tapiromorph perissodactyls from the subcontinent. Gandheralophus minor n. gen. and n. sp. and G. robustus n. sp. are two species of Isectolophidae differing in size and in reduction of the anterior dentition. Gandheralophus is probably derived from a primitive isectolophid such as Orientolophus hengdongensis from the earliest Eocene of China, and may be part of a South Asian lineage that also contains Karagalax from the middle Eocene of Pakistan. Two specimens are referred to a new, unnamed species of Lophialetidae. Finally, a highly diagnostic M3 and a molar fragment are described as the new eomoropid chalicothere Litolophus ghazijensis sp. nov. The perissodactyls described here, in contrast to most other mammalian groups published from the early Eocene of Indo-Pakistan, are most closely related to forms known from East and Central Asia. Tapiromorpha are diverse and biochronologically important in the Eocene there and our results allow the first biochronological correlation between early Eocene mammal faunas in Indo-Pakistan and the rest of Asia. We suggest that the upper Ghazij Formation of Pakistan is best correlated with the middle or late part of the Bumbanian Asian Land-Mammal Age, while the Kuldana and Subathu Formations of Pakistan and India are best correlated with the Arshantan Asian Land-Mammal Age.},
  author       = {Missiaen, Pieter and Gingerich, Philip D},
  issn         = {0567-7920},
  journal      = {ACTA PALAEONTOLOGICA POLONICA},
  keywords     = {biochronology,Eomoropidae,Lophialetidae,Isectolophidae,Perissodactyla,Ghazij Formation,Pakistan,early Eocene,MIDDLE EOCENE,WESTERN INDIA,ISECTOLOPHUS,SYSTEMATICS,ASSEMBLAGE,EVOLUTION,RADIATION,CHINA,BASIN},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {21--34},
  title        = {New early Eocene tapiromorph perissodactyls from the Ghazij Formation of Pakistan, with implications for mammalian biochronology in Asia},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.2010.0093},
  volume       = {57},
  year         = {2012},
}

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