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Transdermal evaluation of caffeine in different formulations and excipients

Lieselotte Veryser (UGent) , Jente Boonen (UGent) , Els Mehuys (UGent) , Nathalie Roche (UGent) , Jean Paul Remon (UGent) , Kathelijne Peremans (UGent) , Christian Burvenich (UGent) and Bart De Spiegeleer (UGent)
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Abstract
Background: The stratum corneum(SC) forms adifficultphysical barrier fordrugs to pass through the skin. Several strategieswere developed to overcome this barrier.Optimization of topical drug formulations by selected excipients may facilitate the penetration of drugs through the SC into the viable skin cells and ultimately into the systemic circulation. Methods: Here, both the influence of two formulations (a classic carbomer-based gel and a novel Pluronic® lecithin organo gel (PLO gel)) and selected excipients (ethanol, propylene glycol, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, isopropyl myristate (IPM), and water) with or without the penetration enhancer miconazole nitrate on the transdermal penetration characteristics of caffeine were determined using an in vitro Franz diffusion cell setup. Results: Higher fluxes were observed for the carbomer-based gel compared to the PLO gel. Among the commonly used excipients, IPM showed the best penetration enhancing properties, while the presence of the penetration enhancer miconazole nitrate did not significantly alter the apparent skin permeation characteristics for caffeine. Conclusion: The high ethanol percentage in the carbomer-based gel could explain the results as supported by our excipient data.Moreover, IPMcould play a beneficial role in topical formulations as this excipient was responsible for a significant increase in the amount of caffeine penetrated through the skin. No overall statistical significant effect of the presence of miconazole nitrate as a penetration enhancer was observed.

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MLA
Veryser, Lieselotte et al. “Transdermal Evaluation of Caffeine in Different Formulations and Excipients.” JOURNAL OF CAFFEINE RESEARCH 3.1 (2013): 41–46. Print.
APA
Veryser, L., Boonen, J., Mehuys, E., Roche, N., Remon, J. P., Peremans, K., Burvenich, C., et al. (2013). Transdermal evaluation of caffeine in different formulations and excipients. JOURNAL OF CAFFEINE RESEARCH, 3(1), 41–46.
Chicago author-date
Veryser, Lieselotte, Jente Boonen, Els Mehuys, Nathalie Roche, Jean Paul Remon, Kathelijne Peremans, Christian Burvenich, and Bart De Spiegeleer. 2013. “Transdermal Evaluation of Caffeine in Different Formulations and Excipients.” Journal of Caffeine Research 3 (1): 41–46.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Veryser, Lieselotte, Jente Boonen, Els Mehuys, Nathalie Roche, Jean Paul Remon, Kathelijne Peremans, Christian Burvenich, and Bart De Spiegeleer. 2013. “Transdermal Evaluation of Caffeine in Different Formulations and Excipients.” Journal of Caffeine Research 3 (1): 41–46.
Vancouver
1.
Veryser L, Boonen J, Mehuys E, Roche N, Remon JP, Peremans K, et al. Transdermal evaluation of caffeine in different formulations and excipients. JOURNAL OF CAFFEINE RESEARCH. 2013;3(1):41–6.
IEEE
[1]
L. Veryser et al., “Transdermal evaluation of caffeine in different formulations and excipients,” JOURNAL OF CAFFEINE RESEARCH, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 41–46, 2013.
@article{3173622,
  abstract     = {Background: The stratum corneum(SC) forms adifficultphysical barrier fordrugs to pass through the skin. Several strategieswere developed to overcome this barrier.Optimization of topical drug formulations by selected excipients may facilitate the penetration of drugs through the SC into the viable skin cells and ultimately into the systemic circulation.
Methods: Here, both the influence of two formulations (a classic carbomer-based gel and a novel Pluronic® lecithin organo gel (PLO gel)) and selected excipients (ethanol, propylene glycol, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, isopropyl myristate (IPM), and water) with or without the penetration enhancer miconazole nitrate on the transdermal penetration characteristics of caffeine were determined using an in vitro Franz diffusion cell setup.
Results: Higher fluxes were observed for the carbomer-based gel compared to the PLO gel. Among the commonly used excipients, IPM showed the best penetration enhancing properties, while the presence of the penetration enhancer miconazole nitrate did not significantly alter the apparent skin permeation characteristics for caffeine.
Conclusion: The high ethanol percentage in the carbomer-based gel could explain the results as supported by our excipient data.Moreover, IPMcould play a beneficial role in topical formulations as this excipient was responsible for a significant increase in the amount of caffeine penetrated through the skin. No overall statistical significant effect of the presence of miconazole nitrate as a penetration enhancer was observed.},
  author       = {Veryser, Lieselotte and Boonen, Jente and Mehuys, Els and Roche, Nathalie and Remon, Jean Paul and Peremans, Kathelijne and Burvenich, Christian and De Spiegeleer, Bart},
  issn         = {2156-5783},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF CAFFEINE RESEARCH},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {41--46},
  title        = {Transdermal evaluation of caffeine in different formulations and excipients},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jcr.2013.0002},
  volume       = {3},
  year         = {2013},
}

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