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Kinematic analysis of cell division in leaves of mono- and dicotyledonous species: a basis for understanding growth and developing refined molecular sampling strategies

Hilde Nelissen (UGent) , Bart Rymen (UGent) , Frederik Coppens (UGent) , Stijn Dhondt (UGent) , Fabio Fiorani (UGent) and Gerrit Beemster (UGent)
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Abstract
The cellular level processes cell division and cell expansion form a crucial level linking regulatory processes at the molecular level to whole plant growth rates and organ size and shape. With the rapid progress in molecular profiling, quantification of cellular activities becomes increasingly important to determine sampling strategies that are most informative to understand the molecular basis for organ and plant level phenotypes. Inversely, to understand phenotypes caused by genetic or environmental perturbations it is crucial to know how the cell division and expansion parameters are affected spatially and temporally. Kinematic analyses provide a powerful and rigorous mathematical framework to quantify cell division and cell expansion rates. In dicotyledonous leaves, these processes are primarily changing over time, resulting in division, expansion, and mature phases of development. Monocotyledonous leaves have a persistent spatial gradient, with an intercalary meristem where division takes place, an expansion zone, and a mature part of the leaf. Here we describe in detail how to perform kinematic analyses in leaves of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana and in the leaves of the monocotyledonous crop species Zea mays. These methods can readily be used and adapted to suit other species using relatively standard equipment present in most laboratories. Importantly, the obtained results can be used to design sampling techniques for proliferating, expanding and mature cells.
Keywords
Epidermal cells, Arabidopsis, Image analysis, Kinematics, Cell division, Cell expansion, Leaf growth, Maize

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Chicago
Nelissen, Hilde, Bart Rymen, Frederik Coppens, Stijn Dhondt, Fabio Fiorani, and Gerrit Beemster. 2013. “Kinematic Analysis of Cell Division in Leaves of Mono- and Dicotyledonous Species: a Basis for Understanding Growth and Developing Refined Molecular Sampling Strategies.” In Plant Organogenesis : Methods and Protocols, ed. Ive De Smet, 959:247–264. New York, NY, USA: Humana Press.
APA
Nelissen, H., Rymen, B., Coppens, F., Dhondt, S., Fiorani, F., & Beemster, G. (2013). Kinematic analysis of cell division in leaves of mono- and dicotyledonous species: a basis for understanding growth and developing refined molecular sampling strategies. In Ive De Smet (Ed.), Plant organogenesis : methods and protocols (Vol. 959, pp. 247–264). New York, NY, USA: Humana Press.
Vancouver
1.
Nelissen H, Rymen B, Coppens F, Dhondt S, Fiorani F, Beemster G. Kinematic analysis of cell division in leaves of mono- and dicotyledonous species: a basis for understanding growth and developing refined molecular sampling strategies. In: De Smet I, editor. Plant organogenesis : methods and protocols. New York, NY, USA: Humana Press; 2013. p. 247–64.
MLA
Nelissen, Hilde, Bart Rymen, Frederik Coppens, et al. “Kinematic Analysis of Cell Division in Leaves of Mono- and Dicotyledonous Species: a Basis for Understanding Growth and Developing Refined Molecular Sampling Strategies.” Plant Organogenesis : Methods and Protocols. Ed. Ive De Smet. Vol. 959. New York, NY, USA: Humana Press, 2013. 247–264. Print.
@incollection{3170740,
  abstract     = {The cellular level processes cell division and cell expansion form a crucial level linking regulatory processes at the molecular level to whole plant growth rates and organ size and shape. With the rapid progress in molecular profiling, quantification of cellular activities becomes increasingly important to determine sampling strategies that are most informative to understand the molecular basis for organ and plant level phenotypes. Inversely, to understand phenotypes caused by genetic or environmental perturbations it is crucial to know how the cell division and expansion parameters are affected spatially and temporally.
Kinematic analyses provide a powerful and rigorous mathematical framework to quantify cell division and cell expansion rates. In dicotyledonous leaves, these  processes are primarily changing over time, resulting in division, expansion, and mature phases of development. Monocotyledonous leaves have a persistent spatial gradient, with an intercalary meristem where division takes place, an expansion zone, and a mature part of the leaf. Here we describe in detail how to perform kinematic analyses in leaves of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana and in the leaves of the monocotyledonous crop species Zea mays. These methods can readily be used and adapted to suit other species using relatively standard equipment present in most laboratories. Importantly, the obtained results can be used to design sampling  techniques for proliferating, expanding and mature cells.},
  author       = {Nelissen, Hilde and Rymen, Bart and Coppens, Frederik and Dhondt, Stijn and Fiorani, Fabio and Beemster, Gerrit},
  booktitle    = {Plant organogenesis : methods and protocols},
  editor       = {De Smet, Ive},
  isbn         = {9781627032216},
  issn         = {1064-3745},
  keyword      = {Epidermal cells,Arabidopsis,Image analysis,Kinematics,Cell division,Cell expansion,Leaf growth,Maize},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {247--264},
  publisher    = {Humana Press},
  series       = {Methods in Molecular Biology},
  title        = {Kinematic analysis of cell division in leaves of mono- and dicotyledonous species: a basis for understanding growth and developing refined molecular sampling strategies},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-62703-221-6\_17},
  volume       = {959},
  year         = {2013},
}

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