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Monoarticular infectious arthritis in the horse: 34 cases

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Abstract
Septic arthritis was diagnosed in 34 horses. In 16 horses a penetrating wound was found; in 4 cases a puncture wound of the sole was present. In 5 horses the infection was iatrogenically induced. Three of these horses had received corticosteroids intra-articularly. A diagnostic intra-articular anesthesia, performed by the local veterinarian, was the cause of infection in one case. One horse suffered from sepsis and metastatic arthritis after a purulent thrombophlebitis. In 9 horses no exact cause was apparent. The average time before presentation at the hospital was 13 days. On clinical examination severe lameness, which had worsened over a short period of time, was apparent and the affected joint was swollen and painful on manipulation. Treatment consisted of high levels of antibiotics, systemically administered, followed by long-term administration of oral sulfonamides. In 26 cases antibiotics were injected into the joint. Immobilization of the joint was done when possible and was the best additive treatment regime combined with systemically administered antibiotics. Following treatment 9 horses recovered completely, 2 horses returned to stud and were not visibly lame but were not worked; 3 horses improved but when worked hard suffered from residual lameness. Six horses remained lame as a result of osteoarthritis. Thirteen horses were destroyed; one horse was lost for follow up.

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Chicago
Peremans, Kathelijne, Francis Verschooten, Antoine De Moor, and Paul Desmet. 1991. “Monoarticular Infectious Arthritis in the Horse: 34 Cases.” Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 11 (1): 27–32.
APA
Peremans, K., Verschooten, F., De Moor, A., & Desmet, P. (1991). Monoarticular infectious arthritis in the horse: 34 cases. JOURNAL OF EQUINE VETERINARY SCIENCE, 11(1), 27–32.
Vancouver
1.
Peremans K, Verschooten F, De Moor A, Desmet P. Monoarticular infectious arthritis in the horse: 34 cases. JOURNAL OF EQUINE VETERINARY SCIENCE. 1991;11(1):27–32.
MLA
Peremans, Kathelijne, Francis Verschooten, Antoine De Moor, et al. “Monoarticular Infectious Arthritis in the Horse: 34 Cases.” JOURNAL OF EQUINE VETERINARY SCIENCE 11.1 (1991): 27–32. Print.
@article{3167140,
  abstract     = {Septic arthritis was diagnosed in 34 horses. In 16 horses a penetrating wound was found; in 4 cases a puncture wound of the sole was present. In 5 horses the infection was iatrogenically induced. Three of these horses had received corticosteroids intra-articularly. A diagnostic intra-articular anesthesia, performed by the local veterinarian, was the cause of infection in one case. One horse suffered from sepsis and metastatic arthritis after a purulent thrombophlebitis. In 9 horses no exact cause was apparent. 
The average time before presentation at the hospital was 13 days. On clinical examination severe lameness, which had worsened over a short period of time, was apparent and the affected joint was swollen and painful on manipulation. 
Treatment consisted of high levels of antibiotics, systemically administered, followed by long-term administration of oral sulfonamides. In 26 cases antibiotics were injected into the joint. Immobilization of the joint was done when possible and was the best additive treatment regime combined with systemically administered antibiotics. Following treatment 9 horses recovered completely, 2 horses returned to stud and were not visibly lame but were not worked; 3 horses improved but when worked hard suffered from residual lameness. Six horses remained lame as a result of osteoarthritis. Thirteen horses were destroyed; one horse was lost for follow up.},
  author       = {Peremans, Kathelijne and Verschooten, Francis and De Moor, Antoine and Desmet, Paul},
  issn         = {0737-0806},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF EQUINE VETERINARY SCIENCE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {27--32},
  title        = {Monoarticular infectious arthritis in the horse: 34 cases},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0737-0806(06)81243-8},
  volume       = {11},
  year         = {1991},
}

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