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Germanium surface passivation and atomic layer deposition of high-k dielectrics: a tutorial review on Ge-based MOS capacitors

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Abstract
Due to its high intrinsic mobility, germanium (Ge) is a promising candidate as a channel material (offering a mobility gain of approximately x 2 for electrons and x 4 for holes when compared to conventional Si channels). However, many issues still need to be addressed before Ge can be implemented in high-performance field-effect-transistor (FET) devices. One of the key issues is to provide a high-quality interfacial layer, which does not lead to substantial drive current degradation in both low equivalent oxide thickness and short channel regime. In recent years, a wide range of materials and processes have been investigated to obtain proper interfacial properties, including different methods for Ge surface passivation, various high-k dielectrics and metal gate materials and deposition methods, and different post-deposition annealing treatments. It is observed that each process step can significantly affect the overall metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-FET device performance. In this review, we describe and compare combinations of the most commonly used Ge surface passivation methods (e.g. epi-Si passivation, surface oxidation and/or nitridation, and S-passivation) with various high-k dielectrics. In particular, plasma-based processes for surface passivation in combination with plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition for high-k depositions are shown to result in high-quality MOS structures. To further improve properties, the gate stack can be annealed after deposition. The effects of annealing temperature and ambient on the electrical properties of the MOS structure are also discussed.
Keywords
METAL-OXIDE-SEMICONDUCTOR, KAPPA GATE DIELECTRICS, III-V SEMICONDUCTORS, ELECTRICAL-PROPERTIES, THERMAL-STABILITY, HAFNIUM OXIDE, CMOS DEVICES, INTERFACE, HFO2, GE(100)

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MLA
Xie, Qi, Shaoren Deng, Marc Schaekers, et al. “Germanium Surface Passivation and Atomic Layer Deposition of High-k Dielectrics: a Tutorial Review on Ge-based MOS Capacitors.” SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 27.7 (2012): n. pag. Print.
APA
Xie, Qi, Deng, S., Schaekers, M., Lin, D., Caymax, M., Delabie, A., Qu, X.-P., et al. (2012). Germanium surface passivation and atomic layer deposition of high-k dielectrics: a tutorial review on Ge-based MOS capacitors. SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 27(7).
Chicago author-date
Xie, Qi, Shaoren Deng, Marc Schaekers, Dennis Lin, Matty Caymax, Annelies Delabie, Xin-Ping Qu, Yu-Long Jiang, Davy Deduytsche, and Christophe Detavernier. 2012. “Germanium Surface Passivation and Atomic Layer Deposition of High-k Dielectrics: a Tutorial Review on Ge-based MOS Capacitors.” Semiconductor Science and Technology 27 (7).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Xie, Qi, Shaoren Deng, Marc Schaekers, Dennis Lin, Matty Caymax, Annelies Delabie, Xin-Ping Qu, Yu-Long Jiang, Davy Deduytsche, and Christophe Detavernier. 2012. “Germanium Surface Passivation and Atomic Layer Deposition of High-k Dielectrics: a Tutorial Review on Ge-based MOS Capacitors.” Semiconductor Science and Technology 27 (7).
Vancouver
1.
Xie Q, Deng S, Schaekers M, Lin D, Caymax M, Delabie A, et al. Germanium surface passivation and atomic layer deposition of high-k dielectrics: a tutorial review on Ge-based MOS capacitors. SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 2012;27(7).
IEEE
[1]
Q. Xie et al., “Germanium surface passivation and atomic layer deposition of high-k dielectrics: a tutorial review on Ge-based MOS capacitors,” SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol. 27, no. 7, 2012.
@article{3152032,
  abstract     = {{Due to its high intrinsic mobility, germanium (Ge) is a promising candidate as a channel material (offering a mobility gain of approximately x 2 for electrons and x 4 for holes when compared to conventional Si channels). However, many issues still need to be addressed before Ge can be implemented in high-performance field-effect-transistor (FET) devices. One of the key issues is to provide a high-quality interfacial layer, which does not lead to substantial drive current degradation in both low equivalent oxide thickness and short channel regime. In recent years, a wide range of materials and processes have been investigated to obtain proper interfacial properties, including different methods for Ge surface passivation, various high-k dielectrics and metal gate materials and deposition methods, and different post-deposition annealing treatments. It is observed that each process step can significantly affect the overall metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-FET device performance. In this review, we describe and compare combinations of the most commonly used Ge surface passivation methods (e.g. epi-Si passivation, surface oxidation and/or nitridation, and S-passivation) with various high-k dielectrics. In particular, plasma-based processes for surface passivation in combination with plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition for high-k depositions are shown to result in high-quality MOS structures. To further improve properties, the gate stack can be annealed after deposition. The effects of annealing temperature and ambient on the electrical properties of the MOS structure are also discussed.}},
  articleno    = {{074012}},
  author       = {{Xie, Qi and Deng, Shaoren and Schaekers, Marc and Lin, Dennis and Caymax, Matty and Delabie, Annelies and Qu, Xin-Ping and Jiang, Yu-Long and Deduytsche, Davy and Detavernier, Christophe}},
  issn         = {{0268-1242}},
  journal      = {{SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{METAL-OXIDE-SEMICONDUCTOR,KAPPA GATE DIELECTRICS,III-V SEMICONDUCTORS,ELECTRICAL-PROPERTIES,THERMAL-STABILITY,HAFNIUM OXIDE,CMOS DEVICES,INTERFACE,HFO2,GE(100)}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{7}},
  pages        = {{14}},
  title        = {{Germanium surface passivation and atomic layer deposition of high-k dielectrics: a tutorial review on Ge-based MOS capacitors}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0268-1242/27/7/074012}},
  volume       = {{27}},
  year         = {{2012}},
}

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