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Phase I and phase II metabolism of synthetic cannabinoids, the Ghent strategy

Nik De Brabanter (UGent) , Simone Esposito (UGent) , Lore Geldof (UGent) , Leen Lootens (UGent) , Koen Deventer (UGent) and Peter Van Eenoo (UGent)
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Abstract
In the last years, numerous new psychoactive drugs have appeared on the market. These new psychoactive substances – also named ‘’legal highs’’ – are usually sold via internet, presented as room odors, herbal incenses or other deceptive names. It was after forensic investigation by German and Austrian authorities in 2008 that the cannabis-like effects experienced by users could be declared by the presence of synthetic cannabinoids. From that moment on, the list of these compounds detected in products with names like ‘’Spice’’, continued to grow. It started with JWH-018 and CP 47,497, but up until now more variants are found almost every month. For the growing popularity of these drugs, the reasons are varied. The synthetic analogues mimic the effect of cannabis and in the same time allow to avoid a positive outcome on the current screening tests for THC. Further these products are easy accessible, they are - often falsely - sold as ‘’legal’’ alternatives for cannabis via internet shops and this online vending is still expanding at high speed. In response to the rising trend in the use of these products, several (inter)national organizations started banning these products. Indeed, in 2010 also the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prohibited synthetic cannabinoids in-competition. However, due to the lack of data on the metabolism of this growing group of compounds, detection in urine remains a difficult task. Since administration to humans is ethically questionable, 2 complementary methods are developed in our lab. The consecutive use of both in vitro and in vivo models allow for the elucidation of both phase I and phase II metabolism of synthetic cannabinoids. In this lecture this strategy - leading to routine screening for this compounds - is presented for two new naphthoylindoles.
Keywords
LC-MS, urine, JWH-122, JWH-200, Doping, synthetic cannabinoids

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Chicago
De Brabanter, Nik, Simone Esposito, Lore Geldof, Leen Lootens, Koen Deventer, and Peter Van Eenoo. 2013. “Phase I and Phase II Metabolism of Synthetic Cannabinoids, the Ghent Strategy.” In Recent Advances in Doping Analysis. Vol. 21. Cologne, Germany: Sportverlag Strauss.
APA
De Brabanter, N., Esposito, S., Geldof, L., Lootens, L., Deventer, K., & Van Eenoo, P. (2013). Phase I and phase II metabolism of synthetic cannabinoids, the Ghent strategy. Recent Advances in Doping Analysis (Vol. 21). Presented at the 31st Cologne workshop of Dope Analysis (Manfred Donike workshop), Cologne, Germany: Sportverlag Strauss.
Vancouver
1.
De Brabanter N, Esposito S, Geldof L, Lootens L, Deventer K, Van Eenoo P. Phase I and phase II metabolism of synthetic cannabinoids, the Ghent strategy. Recent Advances in Doping Analysis. Cologne, Germany: Sportverlag Strauss; 2013.
MLA
De Brabanter, Nik, Simone Esposito, Lore Geldof, et al. “Phase I and Phase II Metabolism of Synthetic Cannabinoids, the Ghent Strategy.” Recent Advances in Doping Analysis. Vol. 21. Cologne, Germany: Sportverlag Strauss, 2013. Print.
@inproceedings{3149847,
  abstract     = {In the last years, numerous new psychoactive drugs have appeared on the market. These new psychoactive substances -- also named {\textquoteleft}{\textquoteright}legal highs{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} -- are usually sold via internet, presented as room odors, herbal incenses or other deceptive names. It was after forensic investigation by German and Austrian authorities in 2008 that the cannabis-like effects experienced by users could be declared by the presence of synthetic cannabinoids. From that moment on, the list of these compounds detected in products with names like {\textquoteleft}{\textquoteright}Spice{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright}, continued to grow. It started with JWH-018 and CP 47,497, but up until now more variants are found almost every month. 
For the growing popularity of these drugs, the reasons are varied. The synthetic analogues mimic the effect of cannabis and in the same time allow to avoid a positive outcome on the current screening tests for THC. Further these products are easy accessible, they are - often falsely - sold as {\textquoteleft}{\textquoteright}legal{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} alternatives for cannabis via internet shops and this online vending is still expanding at high speed.
In response to the rising trend in the use of these products, several (inter)national organizations started banning these products. Indeed, in 2010 also the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prohibited synthetic cannabinoids in-competition. 
However, due to the lack of data on the metabolism of this growing group of compounds, detection in urine remains a difficult task. Since administration to humans is ethically questionable, 2 complementary methods are developed in our lab. The consecutive use of both in vitro and in vivo models allow for the elucidation of both phase I and phase II metabolism of synthetic cannabinoids. 
In this lecture this strategy - leading to routine screening for this compounds - is presented for two new naphthoylindoles.},
  author       = {De Brabanter, Nik and Esposito, Simone and Geldof, Lore and Lootens, Leen and Deventer, Koen and Van Eenoo, Peter},
  booktitle    = {Recent Advances in Doping Analysis},
  keyword      = {LC-MS,urine,JWH-122,JWH-200,Doping,synthetic cannabinoids},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Cologne, Germany},
  publisher    = {Sportverlag Strauss},
  title        = {Phase I and phase II metabolism of synthetic cannabinoids, the Ghent strategy},
  volume       = {21},
  year         = {2013},
}