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Abstract
This study compares the frequencies of attempted suicide among immigrants and their hosts, between different immigrant groups, and between immigrants and their countries of origin. The material, 27,048 persons, including 4,160 immigrants, was obtained from the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, the largest available European database, and was collected in a standardised manner from 11 European centres in 1989-2003. Person-based suicide-attempt rates (SARs) were calculated for each group. The larger immigrant groups were studied at each centre and compared across centres. Completed-suicide rates of their countries of origin were compared to the SARs of the immigrant groups using rank correlations. 27 of 56 immigrant groups studied showed significantly higher, and only four groups significantly lower SARs than their hosts. Immigrant groups tended to have similar rates across different centres. Moreover, positive correlation between the immigrant SAR and the country-of-origin suicide rate was found. However, Chileans, Iranians, Moroccans, and Turks displayed high SARs as immigrants despite low suicide rates in the home countries. The similarity of most immigrant groups' SARs across centres, and the correlation with suicidality in the countries of origin suggest a strong continuity that can be interpreted in either cultural or genetic terms. However, the generally higher rates among immigrants compared to host populations and the similarity of the rates of foreign-born and those immigrants who retained the citizenship of their country of origin point to difficulties in the acculturation and integration process. The positive correlation found between attempted and completed suicide rates suggests that the two are related, a fact with strong implications for suicide prevention.
Keywords
SOCIOECONOMIC-FACTORS, Europe, Migration, Culture, Suicide attempt, DEFINED POPULATION, MENTAL-HEALTH, SELF-HARM, BEHAVIOR, RATES, AUSTRALIA, BIRTH, BORN, ASSOCIATION, Suicide

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MLA
Lipsicas, Cendrine Bursztein, Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen, Alan Apter, et al. “Attempted Suicide Among Immigrants in European Countries: An International Perspective.” SOCIAL PSYCHIATRY AND PSYCHIATRIC EPIDEMIOLOGY 47.2 (2012): 241–251. Print.
APA
Lipsicas, C. B., Mäkinen, I. H., Apter, A., De Leo, D., Kerkhof, A., Lönnqvist, J., Michel, K., et al. (2012). Attempted suicide among immigrants in European countries: an international perspective. SOCIAL PSYCHIATRY AND PSYCHIATRIC EPIDEMIOLOGY, 47(2), 241–251.
Chicago author-date
Lipsicas, Cendrine Bursztein, Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen, Alan Apter, Diego De Leo, Ad Kerkhof, Jouko Lönnqvist, Konrad Michel, et al. 2012. “Attempted Suicide Among Immigrants in European Countries: An International Perspective.” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 47 (2): 241–251.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Lipsicas, Cendrine Bursztein, Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen, Alan Apter, Diego De Leo, Ad Kerkhof, Jouko Lönnqvist, Konrad Michel, Ellinor Salander Renberg, Isik Sayil, Armin Schmidtke, Cornelis Van Heeringen, Airi Värnik, and Danuta Wasserman. 2012. “Attempted Suicide Among Immigrants in European Countries: An International Perspective.” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 47 (2): 241–251.
Vancouver
1.
Lipsicas CB, Mäkinen IH, Apter A, De Leo D, Kerkhof A, Lönnqvist J, et al. Attempted suicide among immigrants in European countries: an international perspective. SOCIAL PSYCHIATRY AND PSYCHIATRIC EPIDEMIOLOGY. 2012;47(2):241–51.
IEEE
[1]
C. B. Lipsicas et al., “Attempted suicide among immigrants in European countries: an international perspective,” SOCIAL PSYCHIATRY AND PSYCHIATRIC EPIDEMIOLOGY, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 241–251, 2012.
@article{3143845,
  abstract     = {{This study compares the frequencies of attempted suicide among immigrants and their hosts, between different immigrant groups, and between immigrants and their countries of origin. 
The material, 27,048 persons, including 4,160 immigrants, was obtained from the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, the largest available European database, and was collected in a standardised manner from 11 European centres in 1989-2003. Person-based suicide-attempt rates (SARs) were calculated for each group. The larger immigrant groups were studied at each centre and compared across centres. Completed-suicide rates of their countries of origin were compared to the SARs of the immigrant groups using rank correlations. 
27 of 56 immigrant groups studied showed significantly higher, and only four groups significantly lower SARs than their hosts. Immigrant groups tended to have similar rates across different centres. Moreover, positive correlation between the immigrant SAR and the country-of-origin suicide rate was found. However, Chileans, Iranians, Moroccans, and Turks displayed high SARs as immigrants despite low suicide rates in the home countries. 
The similarity of most immigrant groups' SARs across centres, and the correlation with suicidality in the countries of origin suggest a strong continuity that can be interpreted in either cultural or genetic terms. However, the generally higher rates among immigrants compared to host populations and the similarity of the rates of foreign-born and those immigrants who retained the citizenship of their country of origin point to difficulties in the acculturation and integration process. The positive correlation found between attempted and completed suicide rates suggests that the two are related, a fact with strong implications for suicide prevention.}},
  author       = {{Lipsicas, Cendrine Bursztein and Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik and Apter, Alan and De Leo, Diego and Kerkhof, Ad and Lönnqvist, Jouko and Michel, Konrad and Renberg, Ellinor Salander and Sayil, Isik and Schmidtke, Armin and Van Heeringen, Cornelis and Värnik, Airi and Wasserman, Danuta}},
  issn         = {{0933-7954}},
  journal      = {{SOCIAL PSYCHIATRY AND PSYCHIATRIC EPIDEMIOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{SOCIOECONOMIC-FACTORS,Europe,Migration,Culture,Suicide attempt,DEFINED POPULATION,MENTAL-HEALTH,SELF-HARM,BEHAVIOR,RATES,AUSTRALIA,BIRTH,BORN,ASSOCIATION,Suicide}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{2}},
  pages        = {{241--251}},
  title        = {{Attempted suicide among immigrants in European countries: an international perspective}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-010-0336-6}},
  volume       = {{47}},
  year         = {{2012}},
}

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