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Large-scale cross-sectional serological survey of Schmallenberg virus in Belgian cattle at the end of the first vector season

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Abstract
A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Belgian cattle population after the first period of infection of the emerging Schmallenberg virus. A total number of 11635 cattle from 422 herds sampled between 2 January and 7 March 2012 were tested for the presence of Schmallenberg-specific antibodies using an ELISA kit. Between-herd seroprevalence in cattle was estimated at 99.76% (95% CI: 98.3499.97) and within-herd seroprevalence at 86.3% (95% CI: 84.7587.71). An Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of 0.3 (P<0.001) was found, indicating that the correlation between two animals within a herd with respect to their serological status was high. Those results corroborate the conclusion that the Schmallenberg virus was widespread in Belgium during winter 2011. Seroprevalence was shown to be statistically associated to the animal's age (P<0.0001): with 64.9% (95% CI: 61.3468.3) estimated for the 612months of age, 86.79% (95% CI: 84.4388.85) for the 1224months of age and 94.4% (95% CI: 93.1495.44) for the animals older than 24months. Based on the results of the described serological survey, we can conclude that after the first Schmallenberg virus episode, almost every Belgian cattle has already been in contact with the virus. In consequence, the vast majority of the host animals should have developed post infection protective immunity against the virus.
Keywords
ELISA, cattle, cross-sectional survey, seroprevalence, Schmallenberg virus, CARBON-DIOXIDE, EUROPE, ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, RUMINANTS, AKABANE

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MLA
Meroc, E., et al. “Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Serological Survey of Schmallenberg Virus in Belgian Cattle at the End of the First Vector Season.” TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES, vol. 60, no. 1, 2013, pp. 4–8, doi:10.1111/tbed.12042.
APA
Meroc, E., Poskin, A., Van Loo, H., Quinet, C., Van Driessche, E., Delooz, L., … Van der Stede, Y. (2013). Large-scale cross-sectional serological survey of Schmallenberg virus in Belgian cattle at the end of the first vector season. TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES, 60(1), 4–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12042
Chicago author-date
Meroc, E, A Poskin, H Van Loo, C Quinet, E Van Driessche, L Delooz, I Behaeghel, et al. 2013. “Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Serological Survey of Schmallenberg Virus in Belgian Cattle at the End of the First Vector Season.” TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES 60 (1): 4–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12042.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Meroc, E, A Poskin, H Van Loo, C Quinet, E Van Driessche, L Delooz, I Behaeghel, F Riocreux, J Hooyberghs, Nick De Regge, AB Caij, T van den Berg, and Yves Van der Stede. 2013. “Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Serological Survey of Schmallenberg Virus in Belgian Cattle at the End of the First Vector Season.” TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES 60 (1): 4–8. doi:10.1111/tbed.12042.
Vancouver
1.
Meroc E, Poskin A, Van Loo H, Quinet C, Van Driessche E, Delooz L, et al. Large-scale cross-sectional serological survey of Schmallenberg virus in Belgian cattle at the end of the first vector season. TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES. 2013;60(1):4–8.
IEEE
[1]
E. Meroc et al., “Large-scale cross-sectional serological survey of Schmallenberg virus in Belgian cattle at the end of the first vector season,” TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 4–8, 2013.
@article{3138393,
  abstract     = {{A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Belgian cattle population after the first period of infection of the emerging Schmallenberg virus. A total number of 11635 cattle from 422 herds sampled between 2 January and 7 March 2012 were tested for the presence of Schmallenberg-specific antibodies using an ELISA kit. Between-herd seroprevalence in cattle was estimated at 99.76% (95% CI: 98.3499.97) and within-herd seroprevalence at 86.3% (95% CI: 84.7587.71). An Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of 0.3 (P<0.001) was found, indicating that the correlation between two animals within a herd with respect to their serological status was high. Those results corroborate the conclusion that the Schmallenberg virus was widespread in Belgium during winter 2011. Seroprevalence was shown to be statistically associated to the animal's age (P<0.0001): with 64.9% (95% CI: 61.3468.3) estimated for the 612months of age, 86.79% (95% CI: 84.4388.85) for the 1224months of age and 94.4% (95% CI: 93.1495.44) for the animals older than 24months. Based on the results of the described serological survey, we can conclude that after the first Schmallenberg virus episode, almost every Belgian cattle has already been in contact with the virus. In consequence, the vast majority of the host animals should have developed post infection protective immunity against the virus.}},
  author       = {{Meroc, E and Poskin, A and Van Loo, H and Quinet, C and Van Driessche, E and Delooz, L and Behaeghel, I and Riocreux, F and Hooyberghs, J and De Regge, Nick and Caij, AB and van den Berg, T and Van der Stede, Yves}},
  issn         = {{1865-1674}},
  journal      = {{TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES}},
  keywords     = {{ELISA,cattle,cross-sectional survey,seroprevalence,Schmallenberg virus,CARBON-DIOXIDE,EUROPE,ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS,RUMINANTS,AKABANE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{4--8}},
  title        = {{Large-scale cross-sectional serological survey of Schmallenberg virus in Belgian cattle at the end of the first vector season}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12042}},
  volume       = {{60}},
  year         = {{2013}},
}

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