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ADHD performance reflects inefficient but not impulsive information processing: a diffusion model analysis

Baris Metin, Herbert Roeyers UGent, Roeljan Wiersema UGent, Jacob Van der Meere UGent, M Thompson and Edmund Barke (2013) NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 27(2). p.193-200
abstract
Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with performance deficits across a broad range of tasks. Although individual tasks are designed to tap specific cognitive functions (e.g., memory, inhibition, planning, etc.), these deficits could also reflect general effects related to either inefficient or impulsive information processing or both. These two components cannot be isolated from each other on the basis of classical analysis in which mean reaction time (RT) and mean accuracy are handled separately. Method: Seventy children with a diagnosis of combined type ADHD and 50 healthy controls (between 6 and 17 years) performed two tasks: a simple two-choice RT (2-CRT) task and a conflict control task (CCT) that required higher levels of executive control. RT and errors were analyzed using the Ratcliff diffusion model, which divides decisional time into separate estimates of information processing efficiency (called "drift rate") and speed-accuracy tradeoff (SATO, called "boundary"). The model also provides an estimate of general nondecisional time. Results: Results were the same for both tasks independent of executive load. ADHD was associated with lower drift rate and less nondecisional time. The groups did not differ in terms of boundary parameter estimates. Conclusion: RT and accuracy performance in ADHD appears to reflect inefficient rather than impulsive information processing, an effect independent of executive function load. The results are consistent with models in which basic information processing deficits make an important contribution to the ADHD cognitive phenotype.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, RESPONSE-INHIBITION, EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS, CHILDREN, MEMORY, QUESTIONNAIRE, VARIABILITY, VALIDITY, REWARD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, reaction time, information processing, Ratcliff Diffusion Model, speed-accuracy tradeoff
journal title
NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
Neuropsychology
volume
27
issue
2
pages
193 - 200
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000316528700006
JCR category
PSYCHOLOGY, CLINICAL
JCR impact factor
3.425 (2013)
JCR rank
14/111 (2013)
JCR quartile
1 (2013)
ISSN
0894-4105
DOI
10.1037/a0031533
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
3131861
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-3131861
date created
2013-02-14 16:51:16
date last changed
2016-12-19 15:46:52
@article{3131861,
  abstract     = {Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with performance deficits across a broad range of tasks. Although individual tasks are designed to tap specific cognitive functions (e.g., memory, inhibition, planning, etc.), these deficits could also reflect general effects related to either inefficient or impulsive information processing or both. These two components cannot be isolated from each other on the basis of classical analysis in which mean reaction time (RT) and mean accuracy are handled separately. Method: Seventy children with a diagnosis of combined type ADHD and 50 healthy controls (between 6 and 17 years) performed two tasks: a simple two-choice RT (2-CRT) task and a conflict control task (CCT) that required higher levels of executive control. RT and errors were analyzed using the Ratcliff diffusion model, which divides decisional time into separate estimates of information processing efficiency (called {\textacutedbl}drift rate{\textacutedbl}) and speed-accuracy tradeoff (SATO, called {\textacutedbl}boundary{\textacutedbl}). The model also provides an estimate of general nondecisional time. Results: Results were the same for both tasks independent of executive load. ADHD was associated with lower drift rate and less nondecisional time. The groups did not differ in terms of boundary parameter estimates. Conclusion: RT and accuracy performance in ADHD appears to reflect inefficient rather than impulsive information processing, an effect independent of executive function load. The results are consistent with models in which basic information processing deficits make an important contribution to the ADHD cognitive phenotype.},
  author       = {Metin, Baris and Roeyers, Herbert and Wiersema, Roeljan and Van der Meere, Jacob and Thompson, M and Barke, Edmund},
  issn         = {0894-4105},
  journal      = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
  keyword      = {ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER,DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER,RESPONSE-INHIBITION,EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS,CHILDREN,MEMORY,QUESTIONNAIRE,VARIABILITY,VALIDITY,REWARD,attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,reaction time,information processing,Ratcliff Diffusion Model,speed-accuracy tradeoff},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {193--200},
  title        = {ADHD performance reflects inefficient but not impulsive information processing: a diffusion model analysis},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0031533},
  volume       = {27},
  year         = {2013},
}

Chicago
Metin, Baris, Herbert Roeyers, Roeljan Wiersema, Jacob Van der Meere, M Thompson, and Edmund Barke. 2013. “ADHD Performance Reflects Inefficient but Not Impulsive Information Processing: a Diffusion Model Analysis.” Neuropsychology 27 (2): 193–200.
APA
Metin, B., Roeyers, H., Wiersema, R., Van der Meere, J., Thompson, M., & Barke, E. (2013). ADHD performance reflects inefficient but not impulsive information processing: a diffusion model analysis. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY, 27(2), 193–200.
Vancouver
1.
Metin B, Roeyers H, Wiersema R, Van der Meere J, Thompson M, Barke E. ADHD performance reflects inefficient but not impulsive information processing: a diffusion model analysis. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 2013;27(2):193–200.
MLA
Metin, Baris, Herbert Roeyers, Roeljan Wiersema, et al. “ADHD Performance Reflects Inefficient but Not Impulsive Information Processing: a Diffusion Model Analysis.” NEUROPSYCHOLOGY 27.2 (2013): 193–200. Print.