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Development of an imaging system for single droplet characterization using a droplet generator

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Abstract
The spray droplets generated by agricultural nozzles play an important role in the application accuracy and efficiency of plant protection products. The limitations of the non-imaging techniques and the recent improvements in digital image acquisition and processing increased the interest in using high speed imaging techniques in pesticide spray characterisation. The goal of this study was to develop an imaging technique to evaluate the characteristics of a single spray droplet using a piezoelectric single droplet generator and a high speed imaging technique. Tests were done with different camera settings, lenses, diffusers and light sources. The experiments have shown the necessity for having a good image acquisition and processing system. Image analysis results contributed in selecting the optimal set-up for measuring droplet size and velocity which consisted of a high speed camera with a 6 µs exposure time, a microscope lens at a working distance of 43 cm resulting in a field of view of 1.0 cm x 0.8 cm and a Xenon light source without diffuser used as a backlight. For measuring macro-spray characteristics as the droplet trajectory, the spray angle and the spray shape, a Macro Video Zoom lens at a working distance of 14.3 cm with a bigger field of view of 7.5 cm x 9.5 cm in combination with a halogen spotlight with a diffuser and the high speed camera can be used.
Keywords
Droplet generator, high speed imaging techniques, droplet characteristics

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MLA
Vulgarakis Minov, Sofija, Frédéric Cointault, Jurgen Vangeyte, et al. “Development of an Imaging System for Single Droplet Characterization Using a Droplet Generator.” Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences. Vol. 77. 2012. 469–481. Print.
APA
Vulgarakis Minov, Sofija, Cointault, F., Vangeyte, J., Pieters, J., Hijazi, B., & Nuyttens, D. (2012). Development of an imaging system for single droplet characterization using a droplet generator. COMMUNICATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL AND APPLIED BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (Vol. 77, pp. 469–481). Presented at the 64th International symposium on Crop Protection.
Chicago author-date
Vulgarakis Minov, Sofija, Frédéric Cointault, Jurgen Vangeyte, Jan Pieters, Bilal Hijazi, and David Nuyttens. 2012. “Development of an Imaging System for Single Droplet Characterization Using a Droplet Generator.” In Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, 77:469–481.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Vulgarakis Minov, Sofija, Frédéric Cointault, Jurgen Vangeyte, Jan Pieters, Bilal Hijazi, and David Nuyttens. 2012. “Development of an Imaging System for Single Droplet Characterization Using a Droplet Generator.” In Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, 77:469–481.
Vancouver
1.
Vulgarakis Minov S, Cointault F, Vangeyte J, Pieters J, Hijazi B, Nuyttens D. Development of an imaging system for single droplet characterization using a droplet generator. COMMUNICATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL AND APPLIED BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 2012. p. 469–81.
IEEE
[1]
S. Vulgarakis Minov, F. Cointault, J. Vangeyte, J. Pieters, B. Hijazi, and D. Nuyttens, “Development of an imaging system for single droplet characterization using a droplet generator,” in COMMUNICATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL AND APPLIED BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Ghent, Belgium, 2012, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 469–481.
@inproceedings{3131198,
  abstract     = {{The spray droplets generated by agricultural nozzles play an important role in the application accuracy and efficiency of plant protection products. The limitations of the non-imaging techniques and the recent improvements in digital image acquisition and processing increased the interest in using high speed imaging techniques in pesticide spray characterisation. 
The goal of this study was to develop an imaging technique to evaluate the characteristics of a single spray droplet using a piezoelectric single droplet generator and a high speed imaging technique. Tests were done with different camera settings, lenses, diffusers and light sources.
The experiments have shown the necessity for having a good image acquisition and processing system. Image analysis results contributed in selecting the optimal set-up for measuring droplet size and velocity which consisted of a high speed camera with a 6 µs exposure time, a microscope lens at a working distance of 43 cm resulting in a field of view of 1.0 cm x 0.8 cm and a Xenon light source without diffuser
used as a backlight. 
For measuring macro-spray characteristics as the droplet trajectory, the spray angle and the spray shape, a Macro Video Zoom lens at a working distance of 14.3 cm with a bigger field of view of 7.5 cm x
9.5 cm in combination with a halogen spotlight with a diffuser and the high speed camera can be used.}},
  author       = {{Vulgarakis Minov, Sofija and Cointault, Frédéric and Vangeyte, Jurgen and Pieters, Jan and Hijazi, Bilal and Nuyttens, David}},
  booktitle    = {{COMMUNICATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL AND APPLIED BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES}},
  issn         = {{1379-1176}},
  keywords     = {{Droplet generator,high speed imaging techniques,droplet characteristics}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  location     = {{Ghent, Belgium}},
  number       = {{4}},
  pages        = {{469--481}},
  title        = {{Development of an imaging system for single droplet characterization using a droplet generator}},
  volume       = {{77}},
  year         = {{2012}},
}