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Antibacterial therapeutics for the treatment of chytrid infection in amphibians: Columbus's egg?

Mariska Muijsers (UGent) , An Martel (UGent) , Pascale Van Rooij (UGent) , Kris Baert (UGent) , Griet Vercauteren (UGent) , Richard Ducatelle (UGent) , Patrick De Backer (UGent) , Francis Vercammen, Freddy Haesebrouck (UGent) and Frank Pasmans (UGent)
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Abstract
Background: The establishment of safe and effective protocols to treat chytridiomycosis in amphibians is urgently required. In this study, the usefulness of antibacterial agents to clear chytridiomycosis from infected amphibians was evaluated. Results: Florfenicol, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine and the combination of trimethoprim and sulfonamides were active in vitro against cultures of five Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis strains containing sporangia and zoospores, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 0.5-1.0 mu g/ml for florfenicol and 8.0 mu g/ml for the sulfonamides. Trimethoprim was not capable of inhibiting growth but, combined with sulfonamides, reduced the time to visible growth inhibition by the sulfonamides. Growth inhibition of B. dendrobatidis was not observed after exposure to clindamycin, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, paromomycin, polymyxin E and tylosin. Cultures of sporangia and zoospores of B. dendrobatidis strains JEL423 and IA042 were killed completely after 14 days of exposure to 100 mu g/ml florfenicol or 16 mu g/ml trimethoprim combined with 80 mu g/ml sulfadiazine. These concentrations were, however, not capable of efficiently killing zoospores within 4 days after exposure as assessed using flow cytometry. Florfenicol concentrations remained stable in a bathing solution during a ten day period. Exposure of Discoglossus scovazzi tadpoles for ten days to 100 mu g/ml but not to 10 mu g florfenicol/ml water resulted in toxicity. In an in vivo trial, post metamorphic Alytes muletensis, experimentally inoculated with B. dendrobatidis, were treated topically with a solution containing 10 mu g/ml of florfenicol during 14 days. Although a significant reduction of the B. dendrobatidis load was obtained, none of the treated animals cleared the infection. Conclusions: We thus conclude that, despite marked anti B. dendrobatidis activity in vitro, the florfenicol treatment used is not capable of eliminating B. dendrobatidis infections from amphibians.
Keywords
TRIMETHOPRIM, TROPICALIS, CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS, BATRACHOCHYTRIUM-DENDROBATIDIS, DECLINES, FROGS, TIME

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Chicago
Muijsers, Mariska, An Martel, Pascale Van Rooij, Kris Baert, Griet Vercauteren, Richard Ducatelle, Patrick De Backer, Francis Vercammen, Freddy Haesebrouck, and Frank Pasmans. 2012. “Antibacterial Therapeutics for the Treatment of Chytrid Infection in Amphibians: Columbus’s Egg?” Bmc Veterinary Research 8.
APA
Muijsers, M., Martel, A., Van Rooij, P., Baert, K., Vercauteren, G., Ducatelle, R., De Backer, P., et al. (2012). Antibacterial therapeutics for the treatment of chytrid infection in amphibians: Columbus’s egg? BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH, 8.
Vancouver
1.
Muijsers M, Martel A, Van Rooij P, Baert K, Vercauteren G, Ducatelle R, et al. Antibacterial therapeutics for the treatment of chytrid infection in amphibians: Columbus’s egg? BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH. 2012;8.
MLA
Muijsers, Mariska, An Martel, Pascale Van Rooij, et al. “Antibacterial Therapeutics for the Treatment of Chytrid Infection in Amphibians: Columbus’s Egg?” BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH 8 (2012): n. pag. Print.
@article{3119351,
  abstract     = {Background: The establishment of safe and effective protocols to treat chytridiomycosis in amphibians is urgently required. In this study, the usefulness of antibacterial agents to clear chytridiomycosis from infected amphibians was evaluated. 
Results: Florfenicol, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine and the combination of trimethoprim and sulfonamides were active in vitro against cultures of five Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis strains containing sporangia and zoospores, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 0.5-1.0 mu g/ml for florfenicol and 8.0 mu g/ml for the sulfonamides. Trimethoprim was not capable of inhibiting growth but, combined with sulfonamides, reduced the time to visible growth inhibition by the sulfonamides. Growth inhibition of B. dendrobatidis was not observed after exposure to clindamycin, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, paromomycin, polymyxin E and tylosin. Cultures of sporangia and zoospores of B. dendrobatidis strains JEL423 and IA042 were killed completely after 14 days of exposure to 100 mu g/ml florfenicol or 16 mu g/ml trimethoprim combined with 80 mu g/ml sulfadiazine. These concentrations were, however, not capable of efficiently killing zoospores within 4 days after exposure as assessed using flow cytometry. Florfenicol concentrations remained stable in a bathing solution during a ten day period. Exposure of Discoglossus scovazzi tadpoles for ten days to 100 mu g/ml but not to 10 mu g florfenicol/ml water resulted in toxicity. In an in vivo trial, post metamorphic Alytes muletensis, experimentally inoculated with B. dendrobatidis, were treated topically with a solution containing 10 mu g/ml of florfenicol during 14 days. Although a significant reduction of the B. dendrobatidis load was obtained, none of the treated animals cleared the infection. 
Conclusions: We thus conclude that, despite marked anti B. dendrobatidis activity in vitro, the florfenicol treatment used is not capable of eliminating B. dendrobatidis infections from amphibians.},
  articleno    = {175},
  author       = {Muijsers, Mariska and Martel, An and Van Rooij, Pascale and Baert, Kris and Vercauteren, Griet and Ducatelle, Richard and De Backer, Patrick and Vercammen, Francis and Haesebrouck, Freddy and Pasmans, Frank},
  issn         = {1746-6148},
  journal      = {BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {7},
  title        = {Antibacterial therapeutics for the treatment of chytrid infection in amphibians: Columbus's egg?},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-8-175},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2012},
}

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