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A critical reappraisal of the chronological framework of the Early Iron Age Urewe Industry

(1987) MUNTU. 6. p.35-62
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Abstract
In the last fifteen years, the Early Iron Age Urewe Industry has played, an still plays, a key role in the diffusion paradigm of iron metallurgy in sub-Saharan Africa. This technological diffusion is then linked to the expansion of Bantu-speakers. The Urewe archaeological sites extend from Zaire to Tanzania, with Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Kenya along the way. No critical reappraisal of the 14C and thermoluminescence data associated with Urewe cultural material had been done. This paper presents such a critical evaluation of Urewe dates. It shows this Industry to date to 2500-1300 bp (550 BC - AD 650) and that iron smelting is indeed associated with early dates. It is one of the oldest African iron-smelting centres. The origin of iron metallurgy is then discussed with the latest available archaeological data from Africa.
Keywords
bantu-speakers expansion, bantu-speakers, East Africa, Interlacustrine area, Early Iron Age, Urewe, Urewe Industry, iron smelting, Urewe ceramics

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MLA
Clist, Bernard-Olivier. “A Critical Reappraisal of the Chronological Framework of the Early Iron Age Urewe Industry.” MUNTU 6 (1987): 35–62. Print.
APA
Clist, B.-O. (1987). A critical reappraisal of the chronological framework of the Early Iron Age Urewe Industry. MUNTU, 6, 35–62.
Chicago author-date
Clist, Bernard-Olivier. 1987. “A Critical Reappraisal of the Chronological Framework of the Early Iron Age Urewe Industry.” Muntu 6: 35–62.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Clist, Bernard-Olivier. 1987. “A Critical Reappraisal of the Chronological Framework of the Early Iron Age Urewe Industry.” Muntu 6: 35–62.
Vancouver
1.
Clist B-O. A critical reappraisal of the chronological framework of the Early Iron Age Urewe Industry. MUNTU. 1987;6:35–62.
IEEE
[1]
B.-O. Clist, “A critical reappraisal of the chronological framework of the Early Iron Age Urewe Industry,” MUNTU, vol. 6, pp. 35–62, 1987.
@article{3118804,
  abstract     = {{In the last fifteen years, the Early Iron Age Urewe Industry has played, an still plays, a key role in the diffusion paradigm of iron metallurgy in sub-Saharan Africa. This technological diffusion is then linked to the expansion of Bantu-speakers. The Urewe archaeological sites extend from Zaire to Tanzania, with Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Kenya along the way. No critical reappraisal of the 14C and thermoluminescence data associated with Urewe cultural material had been done. This paper presents such a critical evaluation of Urewe dates. It shows this Industry to date to 2500-1300 bp (550 BC - AD 650) and that iron smelting is indeed associated with early dates. It is one of the oldest African iron-smelting centres. The origin of iron metallurgy is then discussed with the latest available archaeological data from Africa.}},
  author       = {{Clist, Bernard-Olivier}},
  issn         = {{0768-9403}},
  journal      = {{MUNTU}},
  keywords     = {{bantu-speakers expansion,bantu-speakers,East Africa,Interlacustrine area,Early Iron Age,Urewe,Urewe Industry,iron smelting,Urewe ceramics}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{35--62}},
  title        = {{A critical reappraisal of the chronological framework of the Early Iron Age Urewe Industry}},
  volume       = {{6}},
  year         = {{1987}},
}