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The effect of heat waves, elevated [CO₂] and low soil water availability on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings

(2013) GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY. 19(2). p.517-528
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Abstract
The frequency and intensity of heat waves are predicted to increase. This study investigates whether heat waves would have the same impact as a constant increase in temperature with the same heat sum, and whether there would be any interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and soil moisture content. We grew Quercus rubra seedlings in treatment chambers maintained at either ambient or elevated [CO2] (380 or 700 mu mol CO2 mol(-1)) with temperature treatments of ambient, ambient +3 degrees C, moderate heat wave (+6 degrees C every other week) or severe heat wave (+12 degrees C every fourth week) temperatures. Averaged over a 4-week period, and the entire growing season, the three elevated temperature treatments had the same average temperature and heat sum. Half the seedlings were watered to a soil water content near field capacity, half to about 50% of this value. Foliar gas exchange measurements were performed morning and afternoon (9:00 and 15:00 hours) before, during and after an applied heat wave in August 2010. Biomass accumulation was measured after five heat wave cycles. Under ambient [CO2] and well-watered conditions, biomass accumulation was highest in the +3 degrees C treatment, intermediate in the +6 degrees C heat wave and lowest in the +12 degrees C heat wave treatment. This response was mitigated by elevated [CO2]. Low soil moisture significantly decreased net photosynthesis (A(net)) and biomass in all [CO2] and temperature treatments. The +12 degrees C heat wave reduced afternoon A(net) by 23% in ambient [CO2]. Although this reduction was relatively greater under elevated [CO2], A(net) values during this heat wave were still 34% higher than under ambient [CO2]. We concluded that heat waves affected biomass growth differently than the same amount of heat applied uniformly over the growing season, and that the plant response to heat waves also depends on [CO2] and soil moisture conditions.
Keywords
drought, climate extreme, elevated [CO2], global warming, growth inhibition, heat wave, photosynthesis, Quercus rubra, CARBON-DIOXIDE, CLIMATE-CHANGE, DIE-OFF, CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE, ATMOSPHERIC CO2, GAS-EXCHANGE, PINUS-TAEDA, PHOTOSYNTHESIS, HIGH-TEMPERATURE, CHANGE-TYPE DROUGHT

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MLA
Bauweraerts, Ingvar, Timothy Wertin, Maarten Ameye, et al. “The Effect of Heat Waves, Elevated [CO₂] and Low Soil Water Availability on Northern Red Oak (Quercus Rubra L.) Seedlings.” GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY 19.2 (2013): 517–528. Print.
APA
Bauweraerts, I., Wertin, T., Ameye, M., McGuire, M. A., Teskey, R. O., & Steppe, K. (2013). The effect of heat waves, elevated [CO₂] and low soil water availability on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings. GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, 19(2), 517–528.
Chicago author-date
Bauweraerts, Ingvar, Timothy Wertin, Maarten Ameye, Mary Anne McGuire, Robert O Teskey, and Kathy Steppe. 2013. “The Effect of Heat Waves, Elevated [CO₂] and Low Soil Water Availability on Northern Red Oak (Quercus Rubra L.) Seedlings.” Global Change Biology 19 (2): 517–528.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bauweraerts, Ingvar, Timothy Wertin, Maarten Ameye, Mary Anne McGuire, Robert O Teskey, and Kathy Steppe. 2013. “The Effect of Heat Waves, Elevated [CO₂] and Low Soil Water Availability on Northern Red Oak (Quercus Rubra L.) Seedlings.” Global Change Biology 19 (2): 517–528.
Vancouver
1.
Bauweraerts I, Wertin T, Ameye M, McGuire MA, Teskey RO, Steppe K. The effect of heat waves, elevated [CO₂] and low soil water availability on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings. GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY. 2013;19(2):517–28.
IEEE
[1]
I. Bauweraerts, T. Wertin, M. Ameye, M. A. McGuire, R. O. Teskey, and K. Steppe, “The effect of heat waves, elevated [CO₂] and low soil water availability on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings,” GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 517–528, 2013.
@article{3101817,
  abstract     = {The frequency and intensity of heat waves are predicted to increase. This study investigates whether heat waves would have the same impact as a constant increase in temperature with the same heat sum, and whether there would be any interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and soil moisture content. We grew Quercus rubra seedlings in treatment chambers maintained at either ambient or elevated [CO2] (380 or 700 mu mol CO2 mol(-1)) with temperature treatments of ambient, ambient +3 degrees C, moderate heat wave (+6 degrees C every other week) or severe heat wave (+12 degrees C every fourth week) temperatures. Averaged over a 4-week period, and the entire growing season, the three elevated temperature treatments had the same average temperature and heat sum. Half the seedlings were watered to a soil water content near field capacity, half to about 50% of this value. Foliar gas exchange measurements were performed morning and afternoon (9:00 and 15:00 hours) before, during and after an applied heat wave in August 2010. Biomass accumulation was measured after five heat wave cycles. Under ambient [CO2] and well-watered conditions, biomass accumulation was highest in the +3 degrees C treatment, intermediate in the +6 degrees C heat wave and lowest in the +12 degrees C heat wave treatment. This response was mitigated by elevated [CO2]. Low soil moisture significantly decreased net photosynthesis (A(net)) and biomass in all [CO2] and temperature treatments. The +12 degrees C heat wave reduced afternoon A(net) by 23% in ambient [CO2]. Although this reduction was relatively greater under elevated [CO2], A(net) values during this heat wave were still 34% higher than under ambient [CO2]. We concluded that heat waves affected biomass growth differently than the same amount of heat applied uniformly over the growing season, and that the plant response to heat waves also depends on [CO2] and soil moisture conditions.},
  author       = {Bauweraerts, Ingvar and Wertin, Timothy and Ameye, Maarten and McGuire, Mary Anne and Teskey, Robert O and Steppe, Kathy},
  issn         = {1354-1013},
  journal      = {GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {drought,climate extreme,elevated [CO2],global warming,growth inhibition,heat wave,photosynthesis,Quercus rubra,CARBON-DIOXIDE,CLIMATE-CHANGE,DIE-OFF,CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE,ATMOSPHERIC CO2,GAS-EXCHANGE,PINUS-TAEDA,PHOTOSYNTHESIS,HIGH-TEMPERATURE,CHANGE-TYPE DROUGHT},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {517--528},
  title        = {The effect of heat waves, elevated [CO₂] and low soil water availability on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12044},
  volume       = {19},
  year         = {2013},
}

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