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The magnitude of global marine species diversity

(2012) CURRENT BIOLOGY. 22(23). p.2189-2202
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Abstract
Background: The question of how many marine species exist is important because it provides a metric for how much we do and do not know about life in the oceans. We have compiled the first register of the marine species of the world and used this baseline to estimate how many more species, partitioned among all major eukaryotic groups, may be discovered. Results: There are similar to 226,000 eukaryotic marine species described. More species were described in the past decade (similar to 20,000) than in any previous one. The number of authors describing new species has been increasing at a faster rate than the number of new species described in the past six decades. We report that there are similar to 170,000 synonyms, that 58,000-72,000 species are collected but not yet described, and that 482,000-741,000 more species have yet to be sampled. Molecular methods may add tens of thousands of cryptic species. Thus, there may be 0.7-1.0 million marine species. Past rates of description of new species indicate there may be 0.5 +/- 0.2 million marine species. On average 37% (median 31%) of species in over 100 recent field studies around the world might be new to science. Conclusions: Currently, between one-third and two-thirds of marine species may be undescribed, and previous estimates of there being well over one million marine species appear highly unlikely. More species than ever before are being described annually by an increasing number of authors. If the current trend continues, most species will be discovered this century.
Keywords
OCEANS, RATES, TAXONOMISTS, BIODIVERSITY, RICHNESS, FUTURE, WORMS

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MLA
Appeltans, W, ST Ahyong, G Anderson, et al. “The Magnitude of Global Marine Species Diversity.” CURRENT BIOLOGY 22.23 (2012): 2189–2202. Print.
APA
Appeltans, W, Ahyong, S., Anderson, G., Angel, M., Artois, T., Bailly, N., Bamber, R., et al. (2012). The magnitude of global marine species diversity. CURRENT BIOLOGY, 22(23), 2189–2202.
Chicago author-date
Appeltans, W, ST Ahyong, G Anderson, MV Angel, T Artois, N Bailly, R Bamber, et al. 2012. “The Magnitude of Global Marine Species Diversity.” Current Biology 22 (23): 2189–2202.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Appeltans, W, ST Ahyong, G Anderson, MV Angel, T Artois, N Bailly, R Bamber, A Barber, I Bartsch, A Berta, M Blazewicz-Paszkowycz, P Bock, G Boxshall, CB Boyko, SN Brandao, RA Bray, NL Bruce, SD Cairns, TY Chan, LN Cheng, AG Collins, T Cribb, M Curini-Galletti, F Dandouh-Guebas, PJF Davie, MN Dawson, Olivier De Clerck, W Decock, S De Grave, NJ de Voogd, DP Domning, CC Emig, C Erseus, W Eschmeyer, K Fauchald, DG Fautin, SW Feist, CHJM Fransen, H Furuya, O Garcia-Alvarez, S Gerken, D Gibson, A Gittenberger, S Gofas, L Gomez-Daglio, DP Gordon, MD Guiry, F Hernandez, BW Hoeksema, RR Hopcroft, D Jaume, P Kirk, N Koedam, S Koenemann, JB Kolb, RM Kristensen, A Kroh, G Lambert, DB Lazarus, R Lemaitre, M Longshaw, J Lowry, E Macpherson, LP Madin, C Mah, G Mapstone, PA McLaughlin, Jan Mees, K Meland, CG Messing, CE Mills, TN Molodtsova, R Mooi, B Neuhaus, PKL Ng, C Nielsen, J Norenburg, DM Opresko, M Osawa, G Paulay, W Perrin, JF Pilger, GCB Poore, P Pugh, GB Read, JD Reimer, M Rius, RM Rocha, JI Saiz-Salinas, V Scarabino, B Schierwater, A Schmidt-Rhaesa, KE Schnabel, M Schotte, P Schuchert, E Schwabe, H Segers, C Self-Sullivan, N Shenkar, V Siegel, W Sterrer, S Stohr, B Swalla, ML Tasker, EV Thuesen, T Timm, MA Todaro, X Turon, S Tyler, P Uetz, J van der Land, B Vanhoorne, LP van Ofwegen, RWM van Soest, Jan Vanaverbeke, G Walker-Smith, TC Walter, A Warren, GC Williams, SP Wilson, and MJ Costello. 2012. “The Magnitude of Global Marine Species Diversity.” Current Biology 22 (23): 2189–2202.
Vancouver
1.
Appeltans W, Ahyong S, Anderson G, Angel M, Artois T, Bailly N, et al. The magnitude of global marine species diversity. CURRENT BIOLOGY. 2012;22(23):2189–202.
IEEE
[1]
W. Appeltans et al., “The magnitude of global marine species diversity,” CURRENT BIOLOGY, vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 2189–2202, 2012.
@article{3099366,
  abstract     = {Background: The question of how many marine species exist is important because it provides a metric for how much we do and do not know about life in the oceans. We have compiled the first register of the marine species of the world and used this baseline to estimate how many more species, partitioned among all major eukaryotic groups, may be discovered. 
Results: There are similar to 226,000 eukaryotic marine species described. More species were described in the past decade (similar to 20,000) than in any previous one. The number of authors describing new species has been increasing at a faster rate than the number of new species described in the past six decades. We report that there are similar to 170,000 synonyms, that 58,000-72,000 species are collected but not yet described, and that 482,000-741,000 more species have yet to be sampled. Molecular methods may add tens of thousands of cryptic species. Thus, there may be 0.7-1.0 million marine species. Past rates of description of new species indicate there may be 0.5 +/- 0.2 million marine species. On average 37% (median 31%) of species in over 100 recent field studies around the world might be new to science. 
Conclusions: Currently, between one-third and two-thirds of marine species may be undescribed, and previous estimates of there being well over one million marine species appear highly unlikely. More species than ever before are being described annually by an increasing number of authors. If the current trend continues, most species will be discovered this century.},
  author       = {Appeltans, W and Ahyong, ST and Anderson, G and Angel, MV and Artois, T and Bailly, N and Bamber, R and Barber, A and Bartsch, I and Berta, A and Blazewicz-Paszkowycz, M and Bock, P and Boxshall, G and Boyko, CB and Brandao, SN and Bray, RA and Bruce, NL and Cairns, SD and Chan, TY and Cheng, LN and Collins, AG and Cribb, T and Curini-Galletti, M and Dandouh-Guebas, F and Davie, PJF and Dawson, MN and De Clerck, Olivier and Decock, W and De Grave, S and de Voogd, NJ and Domning, DP and Emig, CC and Erseus, C and Eschmeyer, W and Fauchald, K and Fautin, DG and Feist, SW and Fransen, CHJM and Furuya, H and Garcia-Alvarez, O and Gerken, S and Gibson, D and Gittenberger, A and Gofas, S and Gomez-Daglio, L and Gordon, DP and Guiry, MD and Hernandez, F and Hoeksema, BW and Hopcroft, RR and Jaume, D and Kirk, P and Koedam, N and Koenemann, S and Kolb, JB and Kristensen, RM and Kroh, A and Lambert, G and Lazarus, DB and Lemaitre, R and Longshaw, M and Lowry, J and Macpherson, E and Madin, LP and Mah, C and Mapstone, G and McLaughlin, PA and Mees, Jan and Meland, K and Messing, CG and Mills, CE and Molodtsova, TN and Mooi, R and Neuhaus, B and Ng, PKL and Nielsen, C and Norenburg, J and Opresko, DM and Osawa, M and Paulay, G and Perrin, W and Pilger, JF and Poore, GCB and Pugh, P and Read, GB and Reimer, JD and Rius, M and Rocha, RM and Saiz-Salinas, JI and Scarabino, V and Schierwater, B and Schmidt-Rhaesa, A and Schnabel, KE and Schotte, M and Schuchert, P and Schwabe, E and Segers, H and Self-Sullivan, C and Shenkar, N and Siegel, V and Sterrer, W and Stohr, S and Swalla, B and Tasker, ML and Thuesen, EV and Timm, T and Todaro, MA and Turon, X and Tyler, S and Uetz, P and van der Land, J and Vanhoorne, B and van Ofwegen, LP and van Soest, RWM and Vanaverbeke, Jan and Walker-Smith, G and Walter, TC and Warren, A and Williams, GC and Wilson, SP and Costello, MJ},
  issn         = {0960-9822},
  journal      = {CURRENT BIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {OCEANS,RATES,TAXONOMISTS,BIODIVERSITY,RICHNESS,FUTURE,WORMS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {23},
  pages        = {2189--2202},
  title        = {The magnitude of global marine species diversity},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.09.036},
  volume       = {22},
  year         = {2012},
}

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