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Micro-level economic factors and incentives in children's energy balance related behaviours: findings from the ENERGY European cross-section questionnaire survey

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Abstract
Background: To date, most research on obesogenic environments facing school children has focused on physical and socio-cultural environments. The role of economic factors has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to explore the association of micro-level economic factors and incentives with sports activities and intake of soft drinks and fruit juice in 10-12 year-old school children across Europe, and to explore price sensitivity in children's soft drink consumption and correlates of this price sensitivity. Methods: Data for the study originate from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in seven European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain) in 2010 among 10-12 year-old school children and their parents. In total, 7234 child questionnaires and 6002 parent questionnaires were completed. The child questionnaire included questions addressing self-reported weekly intake of soft drinks and fruit juices and time spent on sports activities, perception of parental support for sports activities, use of pocket money for soft drinks and perceived price responsiveness. Parent questionnaires included questions addressing the role of budget and price considerations in decisions regarding children's sports activities, soft drink consumption, home practices and rules and socio-demographic background variables. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression and discrete-choice (ordered probit) modelling. Results: Economic factors were found to be associated with children's sports participation and sugary drink consumption, explaining 27% of the variation in time for sports activities, and 27% and 12% of the variation in the children's soft drink and juice consumption, respectively. Parents' financial support was found to be an important correlate (Beta = 0.419) of children's sports activities. Children's pocket money was a strong correlate (Beta = 21.034) of soft drink consumption. The majority of the responding children reported to expect that significantly higher prices of soft drinks would lead them to buy less soft drinks with their own pocket money, but a majority of parents did not expect higher soft drink prices to reduce their children's soft drink consumption. Conclusions: We conclude that economic factors, especially parents' financial support and amount of pocket money, appear to be of importance for children's sports participation and soft drink consumption, respectively.
Keywords
DETERMINANTS, FOOD CHOICES, HEALTH BEHAVIOR, OBESOGENIC ENVIRONMENTS, ENVIRONMENTAL INTERVENTIONS, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, CHILDHOOD OBESITY, SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTIONS, Price responsiveness, Soft drinks, Sports activity, Children, Economic incentives, Obesogenic environment, ADOLESCENTS, NUTRITION

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MLA
Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård et al. “Micro-level Economic Factors and Incentives in Children’s Energy Balance Related Behaviours: Findings from the ENERGY European Cross-section Questionnaire Survey.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 9 (2012): n. pag. Print.
APA
Jensen, J. D., Bere, E., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Jan, N., Maes, L., Manios, Y., Martens, M. K., et al. (2012). Micro-level economic factors and incentives in children’s energy balance related behaviours: findings from the ENERGY European cross-section questionnaire survey. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, 9.
Chicago author-date
Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård, Elling Bere, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Natasa Jan, Lea Maes, Yannis Manios, Marloes K Martens, et al. 2012. “Micro-level Economic Factors and Incentives in Children’s Energy Balance Related Behaviours: Findings from the ENERGY European Cross-section Questionnaire Survey.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 9.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård, Elling Bere, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Natasa Jan, Lea Maes, Yannis Manios, Marloes K Martens, Denes Molnar, Luis A Moreno, Amika S Singh, Saskia te Velde, and Johannes Brug. 2012. “Micro-level Economic Factors and Incentives in Children’s Energy Balance Related Behaviours: Findings from the ENERGY European Cross-section Questionnaire Survey.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 9.
Vancouver
1.
Jensen JD, Bere E, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Jan N, Maes L, Manios Y, et al. Micro-level economic factors and incentives in children’s energy balance related behaviours: findings from the ENERGY European cross-section questionnaire survey. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. 2012;9.
IEEE
[1]
J. D. Jensen et al., “Micro-level economic factors and incentives in children’s energy balance related behaviours: findings from the ENERGY European cross-section questionnaire survey,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, vol. 9, 2012.
@article{3098963,
  abstract     = {Background: To date, most research on obesogenic environments facing school children has focused on physical and socio-cultural environments. The role of economic factors has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to explore the association of micro-level economic factors and incentives with sports activities and intake of soft drinks and fruit juice in 10-12 year-old school children across Europe, and to explore price sensitivity in children's soft drink consumption and correlates of this price sensitivity. 
Methods: Data for the study originate from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in seven European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain) in 2010 among 10-12 year-old school children and their parents. In total, 7234 child questionnaires and 6002 parent questionnaires were completed. The child questionnaire included questions addressing self-reported weekly intake of soft drinks and fruit juices and time spent on sports activities, perception of parental support for sports activities, use of pocket money for soft drinks and perceived price responsiveness. Parent questionnaires included questions addressing the role of budget and price considerations in decisions regarding children's sports activities, soft drink consumption, home practices and rules and socio-demographic background variables. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression and discrete-choice (ordered probit) modelling. 
Results: Economic factors were found to be associated with children's sports participation and sugary drink consumption, explaining 27% of the variation in time for sports activities, and 27% and 12% of the variation in the children's soft drink and juice consumption, respectively. Parents' financial support was found to be an important correlate (Beta = 0.419) of children's sports activities. Children's pocket money was a strong correlate (Beta = 21.034) of soft drink consumption. The majority of the responding children reported to expect that significantly higher prices of soft drinks would lead them to buy less soft drinks with their own pocket money, but a majority of parents did not expect higher soft drink prices to reduce their children's soft drink consumption. 
Conclusions: We conclude that economic factors, especially parents' financial support and amount of pocket money, appear to be of importance for children's sports participation and soft drink consumption, respectively.},
  articleno    = {136},
  author       = {Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård and Bere, Elling and De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse and Jan, Natasa and Maes, Lea and Manios, Yannis and Martens, Marloes K and Molnar, Denes and Moreno, Luis A and Singh, Amika S and te Velde, Saskia and Brug, Johannes},
  issn         = {1479-5868},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY},
  keywords     = {DETERMINANTS,FOOD CHOICES,HEALTH BEHAVIOR,OBESOGENIC ENVIRONMENTS,ENVIRONMENTAL INTERVENTIONS,PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY,CHILDHOOD OBESITY,SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTIONS,Price responsiveness,Soft drinks,Sports activity,Children,Economic incentives,Obesogenic environment,ADOLESCENTS,NUTRITION},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {12},
  title        = {Micro-level economic factors and incentives in children's energy balance related behaviours: findings from the ENERGY European cross-section questionnaire survey},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-9-136},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2012},
}

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