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Students' objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education

Nathalie Aelterman (UGent) , Maarten Vansteenkiste (UGent) , Hilde Van Keer (UGent) , Lynn Van den Berghe (UGent) , Jotie De Meyer (UGent) and Leen Haerens (UGent)
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Abstract
Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, M-age = 14.36 +/- 1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students' personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory's emphasis on quality of motivation.
Keywords
adolescence, TEACHER-BEHAVIOR, motivation, physical activity, physical education, SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY, MIDDLE SCHOOL, CHILDREN, EXERCISE, AUTONOMY SUPPORT, INTENTIONS, ENJOYMENT, INTENSITY, INDIVIDUALS, engagement, self-determination theory

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Chicago
Aelterman, Nathalie, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Hilde Van Keer, Lynn Van den Berghe, Jotie De Meyer, and Leen Haerens. 2012. “Students’ Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels and Engagement as a Function of Between-class and Between-student Differences in Motivation Toward Physical Education.” Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 34 (4): 457–480.
APA
Aelterman, N., Vansteenkiste, M., Van Keer, H., Van den Berghe, L., De Meyer, J., & Haerens, L. (2012). Students’ objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education. JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY, 34(4), 457–480.
Vancouver
1.
Aelterman N, Vansteenkiste M, Van Keer H, Van den Berghe L, De Meyer J, Haerens L. Students’ objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education. JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY. 2012;34(4):457–80.
MLA
Aelterman, Nathalie, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Hilde Van Keer, et al. “Students’ Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels and Engagement as a Function of Between-class and Between-student Differences in Motivation Toward Physical Education.” JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY 34.4 (2012): 457–480. Print.
@article{3096336,
  abstract     = {Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3\% boys, M-age = 14.36 +/- 1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37\% and 63\% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students' personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory's emphasis on quality of motivation.},
  author       = {Aelterman, Nathalie and Vansteenkiste, Maarten and Van Keer, Hilde and Van den Berghe, Lynn and De Meyer, Jotie and Haerens, Leen},
  issn         = {0895-2779},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF SPORT \& EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY},
  keyword      = {adolescence,TEACHER-BEHAVIOR,motivation,physical activity,physical education,SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY,MIDDLE SCHOOL,CHILDREN,EXERCISE,AUTONOMY SUPPORT,INTENTIONS,ENJOYMENT,INTENSITY,INDIVIDUALS,engagement,self-determination theory},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {457--480},
  title        = {Students' objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education},
  volume       = {34},
  year         = {2012},
}

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