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Students' objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education

Nathalie Aelterman (UGent) , Maarten Vansteenkiste (UGent) , Hilde Van Keer (UGent) , Lynn Van den Berghe (UGent) , Jotie De Meyer (UGent) and Leen Haerens (UGent)
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Abstract
Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, M-age = 14.36 +/- 1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students' personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory's emphasis on quality of motivation.
Keywords
adolescence, TEACHER-BEHAVIOR, motivation, physical activity, physical education, SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY, MIDDLE SCHOOL, CHILDREN, EXERCISE, AUTONOMY SUPPORT, INTENTIONS, ENJOYMENT, INTENSITY, INDIVIDUALS, engagement, self-determination theory

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MLA
Aelterman, Nathalie, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Hilde Van Keer, et al. “Students’ Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels and Engagement as a Function of Between-class and Between-student Differences in Motivation Toward Physical Education.” JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY 34.4 (2012): 457–480. Print.
APA
Aelterman, N., Vansteenkiste, M., Van Keer, H., Van den Berghe, L., De Meyer, J., & Haerens, L. (2012). Students’ objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education. JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY, 34(4), 457–480.
Chicago author-date
Aelterman, Nathalie, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Hilde Van Keer, Lynn Van den Berghe, Jotie De Meyer, and Leen Haerens. 2012. “Students’ Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels and Engagement as a Function of Between-class and Between-student Differences in Motivation Toward Physical Education.” Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 34 (4): 457–480.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Aelterman, Nathalie, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Hilde Van Keer, Lynn Van den Berghe, Jotie De Meyer, and Leen Haerens. 2012. “Students’ Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels and Engagement as a Function of Between-class and Between-student Differences in Motivation Toward Physical Education.” Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 34 (4): 457–480.
Vancouver
1.
Aelterman N, Vansteenkiste M, Van Keer H, Van den Berghe L, De Meyer J, Haerens L. Students’ objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education. JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY. 2012;34(4):457–80.
IEEE
[1]
N. Aelterman, M. Vansteenkiste, H. Van Keer, L. Van den Berghe, J. De Meyer, and L. Haerens, “Students’ objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education,” JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 457–480, 2012.
@article{3096336,
  abstract     = {{Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, M-age = 14.36 +/- 1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students' personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory's emphasis on quality of motivation.}},
  author       = {{Aelterman, Nathalie and Vansteenkiste, Maarten and Van Keer, Hilde and Van den Berghe, Lynn and De Meyer, Jotie and Haerens, Leen}},
  issn         = {{0895-2779}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{adolescence,TEACHER-BEHAVIOR,motivation,physical activity,physical education,SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY,MIDDLE SCHOOL,CHILDREN,EXERCISE,AUTONOMY SUPPORT,INTENTIONS,ENJOYMENT,INTENSITY,INDIVIDUALS,engagement,self-determination theory}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{4}},
  pages        = {{457--480}},
  title        = {{Students' objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education}},
  volume       = {{34}},
  year         = {{2012}},
}

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