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BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses

(2012) PLOS ONE. 7(10).
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Abstract
The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty) are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called “BeeDoctor”, was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA) technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. “BeeDoctor” is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. “BeeDoctor” was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the “BeeDoctor”, virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies.
Keywords
PARALYSIS-VIRUS, HONEY-BEE, QUEEN-CELL-VIRUS, PICORNA-LIKE VIRUS, APIS-MELLIFERA L., DEFORMED-WING VIRUS, DEPENDENT PROBE AMPLIFICATION, COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER, COMPLETE GENOME SEQUENCE, MITES VARROA-DESTRUCTOR

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Chicago
De Smet, Lina, Jorgen Ravoet, Joachim R de Miranda, Tom Wenseleers, Matthias Y Mueller, Robin FA Moritz, and Dirk de Graaf. 2012. “BeeDoctor, a Versatile MLPA-based Diagnostic Tool for Screening Bee Viruses.” Plos One 7 (10).
APA
De Smet, Lina, Ravoet, J., de Miranda, J. R., Wenseleers, T., Mueller, M. Y., Moritz, R. F., & de Graaf, D. (2012). BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses. PLOS ONE, 7(10).
Vancouver
1.
De Smet L, Ravoet J, de Miranda JR, Wenseleers T, Mueller MY, Moritz RF, et al. BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses. PLOS ONE. 2012;7(10).
MLA
De Smet, Lina, Jorgen Ravoet, Joachim R de Miranda, et al. “BeeDoctor, a Versatile MLPA-based Diagnostic Tool for Screening Bee Viruses.” PLOS ONE 7.10 (2012): n. pag. Print.
@article{3093171,
  abstract     = {The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty) are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called {\textquotedblleft}BeeDoctor{\textquotedblright}, was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA) technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. {\textquotedblleft}BeeDoctor{\textquotedblright} is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. {\textquotedblleft}BeeDoctor{\textquotedblright} was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the {\textquotedblleft}BeeDoctor{\textquotedblright}, virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies.},
  articleno    = {e47953},
  author       = {De Smet, Lina and Ravoet, Jorgen and de Miranda, Joachim R and Wenseleers, Tom and Mueller, Matthias Y and Moritz, Robin FA and de Graaf, Dirk},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  keyword      = {PARALYSIS-VIRUS,HONEY-BEE,QUEEN-CELL-VIRUS,PICORNA-LIKE VIRUS,APIS-MELLIFERA L.,DEFORMED-WING VIRUS,DEPENDENT PROBE AMPLIFICATION,COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER,COMPLETE GENOME SEQUENCE,MITES VARROA-DESTRUCTOR},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {8},
  title        = {BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047953},
  volume       = {7},
  year         = {2012},
}

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