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Can dust emission be used to estimate the mass of the interstellar medium in galaxies: a pilot project with the Herschel reference survey

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Abstract
The standard method for estimating the mass of the interstellar medium (ISM) in a galaxy is to use the 21 cm line to trace the atomic gas and the CO 1-0 line to trace the molecular gas. In this paper, we investigate the alternative technique of using the continuum dust emission to estimate the mass of gas in all phases of the ISM. Using Herschel observations of 10 galaxies from the Herschel Reference Survey and the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, we show that the emission detected by Herschel is mostly from dust that has a temperature and emissivity index similar to that of dust in the local ISM in our galaxy, with the temperature generally increasing toward the center of each galaxy. We calibrate the dust method using the CO and 21 cm observations to provide an independent estimate of the mass of hydrogen in each galaxy, solving the problem of the uncertain "X-factor" for the CO observations by minimizing the dispersion in the ratio of the masses estimated using the two methods. With the calibration for the dust method and the estimate of the X-factor produced in this way, the dispersion in the ratio of the two gas masses is 25%. The calibration we obtain for the dust method is similar to those obtained from Herschel observations of M31 and from Planck observations of the Milky Way. We discuss the practical problems in using this method.
Keywords
INTENSITIES, ABUNDANCES, I., ATLAS, ATOMIC GAS, COLD DUST, dust, extinction, galaxies: ISM, galaxies: spiral, CO-TO-H-2 CONVERSION FACTOR, MOLECULAR GAS, NEARBY GALAXIES, CLOUD MASSES

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MLA
Eales, Stephen, Matthew WL Smith, Robbie Auld, et al. “Can Dust Emission Be Used to Estimate the Mass of the Interstellar Medium in Galaxies: a Pilot Project with the Herschel Reference Survey.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 761.2 (2012): n. pag. Print.
APA
Eales, Stephen, Smith, M. W., Auld, R., Baes, M., Bendo, G. J., Bianchi, S., Boselli, A., et al. (2012). Can dust emission be used to estimate the mass of the interstellar medium in galaxies: a pilot project with the Herschel reference survey. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 761(2).
Chicago author-date
Eales, Stephen, Matthew WL Smith, Robbie Auld, Maarten Baes, George J Bendo, Simone Bianchi, Alessandro Boselli, et al. 2012. “Can Dust Emission Be Used to Estimate the Mass of the Interstellar Medium in Galaxies: a Pilot Project with the Herschel Reference Survey.” Astrophysical Journal 761 (2).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Eales, Stephen, Matthew WL Smith, Robbie Auld, Maarten Baes, George J Bendo, Simone Bianchi, Alessandro Boselli, Laure Ciesla, David Clements, Asantha Cooray, Luca Cortese, Jon Davies, Ilse De Looze, Maud Galametz, Walter Gear, Gianfranco Gentile, Haley Gomez, Jacopo Fritz, Tom Hughes, Suzanne Madden, Laura Magrini, Michael Pohlen, Luigi Spinoglio, Joris Verstappen, Catherine Vlahakis, and Christine D Wilson. 2012. “Can Dust Emission Be Used to Estimate the Mass of the Interstellar Medium in Galaxies: a Pilot Project with the Herschel Reference Survey.” Astrophysical Journal 761 (2).
Vancouver
1.
Eales S, Smith MW, Auld R, Baes M, Bendo GJ, Bianchi S, et al. Can dust emission be used to estimate the mass of the interstellar medium in galaxies: a pilot project with the Herschel reference survey. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2012;761(2).
IEEE
[1]
S. Eales et al., “Can dust emission be used to estimate the mass of the interstellar medium in galaxies: a pilot project with the Herschel reference survey,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 761, no. 2, 2012.
@article{3089423,
  abstract     = {The standard method for estimating the mass of the interstellar medium (ISM) in a galaxy is to use the 21 cm line to trace the atomic gas and the CO 1-0 line to trace the molecular gas. In this paper, we investigate the alternative technique of using the continuum dust emission to estimate the mass of gas in all phases of the ISM. Using Herschel observations of 10 galaxies from the Herschel Reference Survey and the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, we show that the emission detected by Herschel is mostly from dust that has a temperature and emissivity index similar to that of dust in the local ISM in our galaxy, with the temperature generally increasing toward the center of each galaxy. We calibrate the dust method using the CO and 21 cm observations to provide an independent estimate of the mass of hydrogen in each galaxy, solving the problem of the uncertain "X-factor" for the CO observations by minimizing the dispersion in the ratio of the masses estimated using the two methods. With the calibration for the dust method and the estimate of the X-factor produced in this way, the dispersion in the ratio of the two gas masses is 25%. The calibration we obtain for the dust method is similar to those obtained from Herschel observations of M31 and from Planck observations of the Milky Way. We discuss the practical problems in using this method.},
  articleno    = {168},
  author       = {Eales, Stephen and Smith, Matthew WL and Auld, Robbie and Baes, Maarten and Bendo, George J and Bianchi, Simone and Boselli, Alessandro and Ciesla, Laure and Clements, David and Cooray, Asantha and Cortese, Luca and Davies, Jon and De Looze, Ilse and Galametz, Maud and Gear, Walter and Gentile, Gianfranco and Gomez, Haley and Fritz, Jacopo and Hughes, Tom and Madden, Suzanne and Magrini, Laura and Pohlen, Michael and Spinoglio, Luigi and Verstappen, Joris and Vlahakis, Catherine and Wilson, Christine D},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {INTENSITIES,ABUNDANCES,I.,ATLAS,ATOMIC GAS,COLD DUST,dust,extinction,galaxies: ISM,galaxies: spiral,CO-TO-H-2 CONVERSION FACTOR,MOLECULAR GAS,NEARBY GALAXIES,CLOUD MASSES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {9},
  title        = {Can dust emission be used to estimate the mass of the interstellar medium in galaxies: a pilot project with the Herschel reference survey},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/761/2/168},
  volume       = {761},
  year         = {2012},
}

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