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Contribution of motor circuits to counting

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Organization
Abstract
The finding that number processing activates a cortical network partly overlapping that recruited for hand movements has renewed interest in the relationship between number and finger representations. Further evidence about a possible link between fingers and numbers comes from developmental studies showing that finger movements play a crucial role in learning counting. However, increased activity in hand motor circuits during counting may unveil unspecific processes, such as shifting attention, reciting number names, or matching items with a number name. To address this issue, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure changes in corticospinal (CS) excitability during a counting task performed silently and using either numbers or letters of the alphabet to enumerate items. We found an increased CS excitability of hand muscles during the counting task, irrespective of the use of numbers or letters, whereas it was unchanged in arm and foot muscles. Control tasks allowed us to rule out a possible influence of attention allocation or covert speech on CS excitability increase of hand muscles during counting. The present results support a specific involvement of hand motor circuits in counting because no CS changes were found in arm and foot muscles during the same task. However, the contribution of hand motor areas is not exclusively related to number processing because an increase in CS excitability was also found when letters were used to enumerate items. This finding suggests that hand motor circuits are involved whenever items have to be put in correspondence with the elements of any ordered series.
Keywords
CORTICOSPINAL EXCITABILITY, TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION, GERSTMANN-SYNDROME, SUBANGULAR LESION, PREMOTOR CORTEX, ANGULAR GYRUS, ATTENTION, NUMBER, REPRESENTATIONS, ENUMERATION

Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Andres, Michael, Xavier Seron, and Etienne Olivier. “Contribution of Motor Circuits to Counting.” JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE 19.4 (2007): 563–576. Print.
APA
Andres, M., Seron, X., & Olivier, E. (2007). Contribution of motor circuits to counting. JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE, 19(4), 563–576.
Chicago author-date
Andres, Michael, Xavier Seron, and Etienne Olivier. 2007. “Contribution of Motor Circuits to Counting.” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 19 (4): 563–576.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Andres, Michael, Xavier Seron, and Etienne Olivier. 2007. “Contribution of Motor Circuits to Counting.” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 19 (4): 563–576.
Vancouver
1.
Andres M, Seron X, Olivier E. Contribution of motor circuits to counting. JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE. 2007;19(4):563–76.
IEEE
[1]
M. Andres, X. Seron, and E. Olivier, “Contribution of motor circuits to counting,” JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 563–576, 2007.
@article{3087997,
  abstract     = {The finding that number processing activates a cortical network partly overlapping that recruited for hand movements has renewed interest in the relationship between number and finger representations. Further evidence about a possible link between fingers and numbers comes from developmental studies showing that finger movements play a crucial role in learning counting. However, increased activity in hand motor circuits during counting may unveil unspecific processes, such as shifting attention, reciting number names, or matching items with a number name. To address this issue, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure changes in corticospinal (CS) excitability during a counting task performed silently and using either numbers or letters of the alphabet to enumerate items. We found an increased CS excitability of hand muscles during the counting task, irrespective of the use of numbers or letters, whereas it was unchanged in arm and foot muscles. Control tasks allowed us to rule out a possible influence of attention allocation or covert speech on CS excitability increase of hand muscles during counting. The present results support a specific involvement of hand motor circuits in counting because no CS changes were found in arm and foot muscles during the same task. However, the contribution of hand motor areas is not exclusively related to number processing because an increase in CS excitability was also found when letters were used to enumerate items. This finding suggests that hand motor circuits are involved whenever items have to be put in correspondence with the elements of any ordered series.},
  author       = {Andres, Michael and Seron, Xavier and Olivier, Etienne},
  issn         = {0898-929X},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE},
  keywords     = {CORTICOSPINAL EXCITABILITY,TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION,GERSTMANN-SYNDROME,SUBANGULAR LESION,PREMOTOR CORTEX,ANGULAR GYRUS,ATTENTION,NUMBER,REPRESENTATIONS,ENUMERATION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {563--576},
  title        = {Contribution of motor circuits to counting},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2007.19.4.563},
  volume       = {19},
  year         = {2007},
}

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