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Survival of norovirus, murine norovirus 1, MS2 phage and E. coli in various types of water used for irrigation of fresh produce

Stefanie Delbeke (UGent) , Leen Baert (UGent) , Ann De Keuckelaere (UGent) , Dan Li (UGent) and Mieke Uyttendaele (UGent)
Author
Organization
Abstract
Introduction: Viral food borne outbreaks, in particular Norovirus, have been associated with the consumption of fresh produce. Crops can be contaminated pre-harvest via irrigation water, (manured) soil or wild life, or post-harvest via contact with infected food handlers, contaminated transport or washing water or equipment. The use of surrogate viruses can be used to model survival of Norovirus in the environment. Purpose: The present study is focused on the survival and detection of NoV, Murine Norovirus 1 (MNV-1), MS2 phage and E. coli in different types of irrigation water (rain water, bore hole water, river water and open well water). Methods: These types of water were inoculated with human pathogenic NoV GI.3 and GII.4, surrogate viruses MNV-1 and MS2 and E. coli as the bacterial fecal indicator and stored at 10°C and 22°C. Monitoring of (non-cultivable) NoV was performed using real-time RT-qPCR, of (cultivable) MNV-1 by RT-qPCR and plaque assay (cell lines), of MS2 phage by plaque assay and E. coli by plating on Rapid’E. coli 2 (Bio-Rad). Results: All inoculated microorganisms (E. coli, MS2, MNV-1 (plaques and RT-qPCR) and NoV) showed a significant faster reduction at 22°C than at 10°C in all different types of water. The type of water had an impact on survival and highest reductions were observed in river water (≥ 2 log after 7, 14, 28, 35 and ≥ 62 days respectively at 10°C) and in open well water (≥ 2 log after 7, 14, 21, 62 and > 35 days respectively at 10°C). As expected, RT-qPCR signals for MNV-1 (and NoV) were detected for a prolonged period time but does not necessarily relate to infectivity, for which plaque assay are needed. At 22°C MNV-1 could be detected up to 35 and 62 days by RT-qPCR unlike only up to 10 days by means of plaque assay in river water and open well water, respectively. Significance: The stability of the microorganisms depends on the temperature and the type of water. The longest survival was noted at (commonly encountered) low temperature (10°C) and bore hole water or rain water. In particular NoV and MNV-1 show highest stability when monitoring using RT-qPCR, although this lacks information on the infectivity of micro-organism thus detected.
Keywords
E. coli, Norovirus, Murine Norovirus 1, irrigation water, MS2 phage, plaque assay, RT-qPCR

Citation

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MLA
Delbeke, Stefanie, Leen Baert, Ann De Keuckelaere, et al. “Survival of Norovirus, Murine Norovirus 1, MS2 Phage and E. Coli in Various Types of Water Used for Irrigation of Fresh Produce.” IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety, Abstracts. International Association for Food Protection (IAFP), 2012. Print.
APA
Delbeke, S., Baert, L., De Keuckelaere, A., Li, D., & Uyttendaele, M. (2012). Survival of norovirus, murine norovirus 1, MS2 phage and E. coli in various types of water used for irrigation of fresh produce. IAFP European symposium on food safety, Abstracts. Presented at the IAFP European symposium on Food Safety 2012, International Association for Food Protection (IAFP).
Chicago author-date
Delbeke, Stefanie, Leen Baert, Ann De Keuckelaere, Dan Li, and Mieke Uyttendaele. 2012. “Survival of Norovirus, Murine Norovirus 1, MS2 Phage and E. Coli in Various Types of Water Used for Irrigation of Fresh Produce.” In IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety, Abstracts. International Association for Food Protection (IAFP).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Delbeke, Stefanie, Leen Baert, Ann De Keuckelaere, Dan Li, and Mieke Uyttendaele. 2012. “Survival of Norovirus, Murine Norovirus 1, MS2 Phage and E. Coli in Various Types of Water Used for Irrigation of Fresh Produce.” In IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety, Abstracts. International Association for Food Protection (IAFP).
Vancouver
1.
Delbeke S, Baert L, De Keuckelaere A, Li D, Uyttendaele M. Survival of norovirus, murine norovirus 1, MS2 phage and E. coli in various types of water used for irrigation of fresh produce. IAFP European symposium on food safety, Abstracts. International Association for Food Protection (IAFP); 2012.
IEEE
[1]
S. Delbeke, L. Baert, A. De Keuckelaere, D. Li, and M. Uyttendaele, “Survival of norovirus, murine norovirus 1, MS2 phage and E. coli in various types of water used for irrigation of fresh produce,” in IAFP European symposium on food safety, Abstracts, Warsaw, Poland, 2012.
@inproceedings{3080584,
  abstract     = {Introduction: Viral food borne outbreaks, in particular Norovirus, have been associated with the consumption of fresh produce. Crops can be contaminated pre-harvest via irrigation water, (manured) soil or wild life, or post-harvest via contact with infected food handlers, contaminated transport or washing water or equipment. The use of surrogate viruses can be used to model survival of Norovirus in the environment. 
Purpose: The present study is focused on the survival and detection of NoV, Murine Norovirus 1 (MNV-1), MS2 phage and E. coli in different types of irrigation water (rain water, bore hole water, river water and open well water).
Methods: These types of water were inoculated with human pathogenic NoV GI.3 and GII.4, surrogate viruses MNV-1 and MS2 and E. coli as the bacterial fecal indicator and stored at 10°C and 22°C. Monitoring of (non-cultivable) NoV was performed using real-time RT-qPCR, of (cultivable) MNV-1 by RT-qPCR and plaque assay (cell lines), of MS2 phage by plaque assay and E. coli by plating on Rapid’E. coli 2 (Bio-Rad).
Results: All inoculated microorganisms (E. coli, MS2, MNV-1 (plaques and RT-qPCR) and NoV) showed a significant faster reduction at 22°C than at 10°C in all different types of water. The type of water had an impact on survival and highest reductions were observed in river water (≥ 2 log after 7, 14, 28, 35 and ≥ 62 days respectively at 10°C) and in open well water (≥ 2 log after 7, 14, 21, 62 and > 35 days respectively at 10°C). As expected, RT-qPCR signals for MNV-1 (and NoV) were detected for a prolonged period time but does not necessarily relate to infectivity, for which plaque assay are needed. At 22°C MNV-1 could be detected up to 35 and 62 days by RT-qPCR unlike only up to 10 days by means of plaque assay in river water and open well water, respectively. 
Significance: The stability of the microorganisms depends on the temperature and the type of water. The longest survival was noted at (commonly encountered) low temperature (10°C) and bore hole water or rain water. In particular NoV and MNV-1 show highest stability when monitoring using RT-qPCR, although this lacks information on the infectivity of micro-organism thus detected.},
  articleno    = {abstract T1-05},
  author       = {Delbeke, Stefanie and Baert, Leen and De Keuckelaere, Ann and Li, Dan and Uyttendaele, Mieke},
  booktitle    = {IAFP European symposium on food safety, Abstracts},
  keywords     = {E. coli,Norovirus,Murine Norovirus 1,irrigation water,MS2 phage,plaque assay,RT-qPCR},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Warsaw, Poland},
  publisher    = {International Association for Food Protection (IAFP)},
  title        = {Survival of norovirus, murine norovirus 1, MS2 phage and E. coli in various types of water used for irrigation of fresh produce},
  year         = {2012},
}