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The Herschel Virgo Cluster survey, XI : environmental effects on molecular gas and dust in spiral disks

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Abstract
Aims. We investigate the dust-to-gas mass ratio and the environmental effects on the various components of the interstellar medium for a spatially resolved sample of Virgo spirals. Methods. We have used the IRAM-30 m telescope to map over their full extent NGC 4189, NGC 4298, NGC 4388, and NGC 4299 in the (CO)-C-12(1-0) and the (CO)-C-12(2-1) lines. We observed the same lines in selected regions of NGC 4351, NGC 4294, and NGC 4424. The CO observations are combined with Herschel maps in 5 bands between 100-500 mu m from the HeViCS survey, and with HI data from the VIVA survey, to obtain spatially resolved dust and gas distributions. We studied the environmental dependencies by adding to our sample eight galaxies with (CO)-C-12(1-0) maps from the literature. Results. We estimate the integrated mass of molecular hydrogen for the galaxies observed in the CO lines. We find molecular-to-total gas mass fractions between 0.04 <= f(mol) <= 0.65, with the lowest values for the dimmest galaxy in the B-band. The integrated dust-to-gas ratio ranges between 0.011 and 0.004. For the 12 mapped galaxies we derive the radial distributions of the atomic gas, molecular gas, and dust. We also study the effect of different CO-to-H-2 conversion factors. Both the molecular gas and the dust distributions show steeper radial profiles for HI-deficient galaxies and the average dust-to-gas ratio for these galaxies increases or stays radially constant. On scales of similar to 3 kpc, we find a strong correlation between the molecular gas and the 250 mu m surface brightness that is tighter than average for non-deficient galaxies. The correlation becomes linear if we consider the total gas surface mass density. However, the inclusion of atomic hydrogen does not improve the statistical significance of the correlation. Conclusions. The environment can modify the distributions of molecules and dust within a galaxy, although these components are more tightly bound than the atomic gas.
Keywords
galaxies: clusters: general, galaxies: spiral, Galaxy: evolution, DIGITAL SKY SURVEY, STAR-FORMATION LAW, ISM: molecules, infrared: galaxies, extinction, dust, LATE-TYPE GALAXIES, H-I, ATOMIC GAS, NEUTRAL HYDROGEN, TULLY-FISHER, COMA/A1367 SUPERCLUSTER, IRREGULAR GALAXIES, CONVERSION FACTOR

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MLA
Pappalardo, C, S Bianchi, E Corbelli, et al. “The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, XI : Environmental Effects on Molecular Gas and Dust in Spiral Disks.” ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS 545 (2012): n. pag. Print.
APA
Pappalardo, C, Bianchi, S., Corbelli, E., Giovanardi, C., Hunt, L., Bendo, G., Boselli, A., et al. (2012). The Herschel Virgo Cluster survey, XI : environmental effects on molecular gas and dust in spiral disks. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS, 545.
Chicago author-date
Pappalardo, C, S Bianchi, E Corbelli, C Giovanardi, L Hunt, GJ Bendo, A Boselli, et al. 2012. “The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, XI : Environmental Effects on Molecular Gas and Dust in Spiral Disks.” Astronomy & Astrophysics 545.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Pappalardo, C, S Bianchi, E Corbelli, C Giovanardi, L Hunt, GJ Bendo, A Boselli, L Cortese, L Magrini, S Zibetti, S di Serego Alighieri, J Davies, Maarten Baes, L Ciesla, M Clemens, Ilse De Looze, Jacopo Fritz, M Grossi, M Pohlen, MWL Smith, Joris Verstappen, and C Vlahakis. 2012. “The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, XI : Environmental Effects on Molecular Gas and Dust in Spiral Disks.” Astronomy & Astrophysics 545.
Vancouver
1.
Pappalardo C, Bianchi S, Corbelli E, Giovanardi C, Hunt L, Bendo G, et al. The Herschel Virgo Cluster survey, XI : environmental effects on molecular gas and dust in spiral disks. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS. 2012;545.
IEEE
[1]
C. Pappalardo et al., “The Herschel Virgo Cluster survey, XI : environmental effects on molecular gas and dust in spiral disks,” ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS, vol. 545, 2012.
@article{3075370,
  abstract     = {{Aims. We investigate the dust-to-gas mass ratio and the environmental effects on the various components of the interstellar medium for a spatially resolved sample of Virgo spirals. 
Methods. We have used the IRAM-30 m telescope to map over their full extent NGC 4189, NGC 4298, NGC 4388, and NGC 4299 in the (CO)-C-12(1-0) and the (CO)-C-12(2-1) lines. We observed the same lines in selected regions of NGC 4351, NGC 4294, and NGC 4424. The CO observations are combined with Herschel maps in 5 bands between 100-500 mu m from the HeViCS survey, and with HI data from the VIVA survey, to obtain spatially resolved dust and gas distributions. We studied the environmental dependencies by adding to our sample eight galaxies with (CO)-C-12(1-0) maps from the literature. 
Results. We estimate the integrated mass of molecular hydrogen for the galaxies observed in the CO lines. We find molecular-to-total gas mass fractions between 0.04 <= f(mol) <= 0.65, with the lowest values for the dimmest galaxy in the B-band. The integrated dust-to-gas ratio ranges between 0.011 and 0.004. For the 12 mapped galaxies we derive the radial distributions of the atomic gas, molecular gas, and dust. We also study the effect of different CO-to-H-2 conversion factors. Both the molecular gas and the dust distributions show steeper radial profiles for HI-deficient galaxies and the average dust-to-gas ratio for these galaxies increases or stays radially constant. On scales of similar to 3 kpc, we find a strong correlation between the molecular gas and the 250 mu m surface brightness that is tighter than average for non-deficient galaxies. The correlation becomes linear if we consider the total gas surface mass density. However, the inclusion of atomic hydrogen does not improve the statistical significance of the correlation. 
Conclusions. The environment can modify the distributions of molecules and dust within a galaxy, although these components are more tightly bound than the atomic gas.}},
  articleno    = {{A75}},
  author       = {{Pappalardo, C and Bianchi, S and Corbelli, E and Giovanardi, C and Hunt, L and Bendo, GJ and Boselli, A and Cortese, L and Magrini, L and Zibetti, S and di Serego Alighieri, S and Davies, J and Baes, Maarten and Ciesla, L and Clemens, M and De Looze, Ilse and Fritz, Jacopo and Grossi, M and Pohlen, M and Smith, MWL and Verstappen, Joris and Vlahakis, C}},
  issn         = {{0004-6361}},
  journal      = {{ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS}},
  keywords     = {{galaxies: clusters: general,galaxies: spiral,Galaxy: evolution,DIGITAL SKY SURVEY,STAR-FORMATION LAW,ISM: molecules,infrared: galaxies,extinction,dust,LATE-TYPE GALAXIES,H-I,ATOMIC GAS,NEUTRAL HYDROGEN,TULLY-FISHER,COMA/A1367 SUPERCLUSTER,IRREGULAR GALAXIES,CONVERSION FACTOR}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{17}},
  title        = {{The Herschel Virgo Cluster survey, XI : environmental effects on molecular gas and dust in spiral disks}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201219689}},
  volume       = {{545}},
  year         = {{2012}},
}

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